Amendment No. 1 to Form S-1
Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on April 25, 2019

Registration No. 333-230798

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

Amendment No. 1

to

FORM S-1

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

Red River Bancshares, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Louisiana   6022   72-1412058

(State or other jurisdiction of

incorporation or organization)

 

(Primary Standard Industrial

Classification Code Number)

  (I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)

 

 

1412 Centre Court Drive, Suite 402

Alexandria, Louisiana 71301

(318) 561-5028

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)

 

 

R. Blake Chatelain

President and Chief Executive Officer

Red River Bancshares, Inc.

1412 Centre Court Drive, Suite 402

Alexandria, Louisiana 71301

(318) 561-5028

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)

 

 

Copies to:

 

Lowell W. Harrison, Esq.

Stephanie E. Kalahurka, Esq.
Brent Standefer, Jr., Esq.

Fenimore, Kay, Harrison & Ford, LLP
812 San Antonio Street, Suite 600
Austin, Texas 78701
(512) 583-5900
(512) 583-5940 (facsimile)

  

Todd H. Eveson, Esq.

Jonathan A. Greene, Esq.

Lorna A. Knick, Esq.

Wyrick Robbins Yates & Ponton LLP

4101 Lake Boone Trail, Suite 300

Raleigh, North Carolina 27607

(919) 781-4000

(919) 781-4865 (facsimile)

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: As soon as practicable after this Registration Statement becomes effective.

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box:  ☐

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer  ☐

   Accelerated filer  ☐

Non-accelerated filer    ☐

   Smaller reporting company  ☒
   Emerging growth company  ☒

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)B) of the Securities Act.  ☒

 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

 

Title of Each Class of

Securities to be Registered

 

Amount

to be

Registered(1)

 

Proposed

Maximum

Offering Price

Per Share(2)

 

Proposed

Maximum
Aggregate Offering
Price(2)

  Amount of
Registration Fee(3)

Common stock, no par value per share

  690,000   $46.00   $31,740,000   $3,846.89

 

 

 

(1)

Includes shares of common stock to be sold by the selling shareholders and shares of common stock that the underwriters have the option to purchase from the registrant. See “Underwriting.”

(2)

Estimated solely for purposes of calculating the registration fee in accordance with Rule 457(a) under the Securities Act of 1933.

(3)

This amount is being offset by $3,636.00 previously paid in connection with the initial filing of this registration statement on April 10, 2019.

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement will thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933, or until this registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.


Table of Contents

The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. Neither we nor the selling shareholders may sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED APRIL 25, 2019

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS

600,000 Shares

 

 

LOGO

Common Stock

 

 

This prospectus relates to the initial public offering of Red River Bancshares, Inc.’s common stock. We are a bank holding company for Red River Bank, a state-chartered bank based in Alexandria, Louisiana. We are offering 573,320 shares of our common stock. The selling shareholders identified in this prospectus are offering an additional 26,680 shares of our common stock. We will not receive any proceeds from sales of shares by the selling shareholders.

Prior to this offering, there has been no established public market for our common stock. We currently estimate that the public offering price per share of our common stock will be between $42.00 and $46.00 per share. We have applied to list our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “RRBI.”

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors,” beginning on page 25, for a discussion of certain risks that you should consider before investing in our common stock.

 

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission, nor any other state securities commission, nor any other regulatory body has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

We are an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, and are subject to reduced public company reporting requirements. See “Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company.”

Our common stock is not a deposit or savings account of any of our bank or non-bank subsidiaries and is not insured or guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other governmental agency.

 

 

 

    Per Share     Total  

Initial public offering price

   $                        $                    

Underwriting discounts(1)

   $        $    

Proceeds to us, before expenses

   $        $    

Proceeds to the selling shareholders, before expenses

   $        $    

 

  (1)

See “Underwriting” for additional information regarding underwriting compensation.

This offering is being underwritten on a firm commitment basis. The underwriters have an option for a period of 30 days to purchase up to an additional 90,000 shares of our common stock from us on the same terms set forth above.

The underwriters expect to deliver the shares of our common stock to purchasers on or about                 , 2019, subject to customary closing conditions.

 

FIG Partners, LLC    Stephens Inc.

Prospectus dated                     , 2019


Table of Contents

LOGO


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

About This Prospectus

     ii  

Industry and Market Data

     ii  

Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company

     iii  

Prospectus Summary

     1  

The Offering

     21  

Selected Historical Consolidated Financial Information

     23  

Risk Factors

     25  

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

     50  

Use of Proceeds

     52  

Dividend Policy

     53  

Capitalization

     54  

Dilution

     56  

Price Range of Our Common Stock

     58  

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

     59  

Business

     94  

Management

     115  

Executive Compensation

     125  

Principal and Selling Shareholders

     133  

Certain Relationships and Related Party Transactions

     136  

Description of Capital Stock

     138  

Shares Eligible for Future Sale

     142  

Supervision and Regulation

     144  

Certain Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences for Non-U.S. Holders of Common Stock

     155  

Underwriting

     159  

Legal Matters

     163  

Experts

     163  

Where You Can Find More Information

     163  

Index to Financial Statements

     F-1  


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About this Prospectus

Unless the context indicates otherwise, references in this prospectus to “we,” “our,” “us,” “the Company,” and “our company” refer to Red River Bancshares, Inc., a Louisiana corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries. All references in this prospectus to “Red River Bank,” the “bank,” and the “Bank” refer to Red River Bank, our wholly owned bank subsidiary.

You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus. The Company, the selling shareholders, and the underwriters have not authorized anyone to provide you with information different from that contained in this prospectus. If anyone provides you with additional, different, or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. The Company, the selling shareholders, and the underwriters take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the shares of our common stock offered hereby, and only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. The Company, the selling shareholders, and the underwriters are not making an offer of shares of our common stock in any state, country, or other jurisdiction where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus or any free writing prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date of the applicable document regardless of its time of delivery or the time of any sales of our common stock. Our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows may have changed since the date of the applicable document.

Neither we, any of our officers, directors, agents, representatives, the selling shareholders, nor the underwriters, make any representation to you about the legality of an investment in our common stock. You should not interpret the contents of this prospectus or any free writing prospectus to be legal, business, investment, or tax advice. You should consult with your own advisors for that type of advice and consult with them about the legal, tax, business, financial, and other issues that you should consider before investing in our common stock.

This prospectus describes the specific details regarding this offering and the terms and conditions of our common stock being offered hereby and the risks of investing in our common stock. For additional information, please see the section entitled “Where You Can Find More Information.”

Unless otherwise stated, all information in this prospectus gives effect to a 2-for-1 stock split, which was accomplished by a stock dividend with a record date of October 1, 2018 whereby each holder of our common stock received one additional share of common stock for each share owned as of such date. This transaction is referred to in this prospectus as the “2018 2-for-1 stock split.”

Industry and Market Data

This prospectus includes industry and market data that we obtained from periodic industry publications, third-party studies and surveys prepared for other purposes, filings of public companies in our industry, and internal company surveys. These sources include government and industry sources. Industry publications and surveys generally state that the information contained therein has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable. Although we are responsible for all of the disclosure contained in this prospectus and we believe the industry and market data to be reliable as of the date of this prospectus, this information could prove to be inaccurate. Industry and market data could be wrong due to the method by which sources obtained their data and because information cannot always be verified with complete certainty due to the limits on the availability and reliability of raw data, the voluntary nature of the data gathering process, and other limitations and uncertainties. In addition, we do not know all of the assumptions regarding general economic conditions or growth that were used in preparing the forecasts by the sources relied upon or cited herein. Forward-looking information obtained from these sources is subject to the same qualifications and the additional uncertainties regarding the other forward-looking statements in this prospectus. Trademarks used in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners, although for presentational convenience, we may not use the ® or the symbols to identify such trademarks.

 

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Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company

As a company with less than $1.07 billion in gross revenue during our last fiscal year, we qualify as an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 (“JOBS Act”). An emerging growth company may take advantage of reduced regulatory and reporting requirements that are otherwise generally applicable to public companies. As an emerging growth company:

 

   

we may present only two years of audited financial statements and only two years of related Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations;

 

   

we are exempt from the requirement to obtain an attestation and report from our auditors on management’s assessment of our internal controls over financial reporting under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (“Sarbanes-Oxley Act”);

 

   

we are permitted to provide less extensive disclosure about our executive compensation arrangements; and

 

   

we are not required to hold non-binding advisory votes on executive compensation or golden parachute arrangements.

In this prospectus we have elected to take advantage of the reduced disclosure requirements relating to the presentation and discussion of our audited financial statements and executive compensation, and in the future we may take advantage of any or all of these exemptions for so long as we remain an emerging growth company. We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (i) the end of the fiscal year during which we have total annual gross revenues of $1.07 billion or more, (ii) the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the completion of this offering, (iii) the date on which we have, during the previous three-year period, issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities, and (iv) the date on which we are deemed to be a “large accelerated filer” under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (“Exchange Act”).

In addition to the relief described above, the JOBS Act permits an emerging growth company to take advantage of an extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards affecting public companies. However, we have elected not to take advantage of this extended transition period, which means that the financial statements included in this prospectus, as well as any financial statements that we file in the future, will be subject to all new or revised accounting standards generally applicable to public companies. Our election not to take advantage of the extended transition period is irrevocable.

 

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus and may not contain all of the information that you should consider before investing in our common stock. You should carefully read the entire prospectus, including the sections entitled “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” together with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes, before making an investment decision.

Our Company

We are a bank holding company headquartered in Alexandria, Louisiana. Through our wholly owned subsidiary, Red River Bank, a Louisiana state-chartered bank, we provide a fully integrated suite of banking products and services tailored to the needs of our commercial and retail customers. We operate from a network of 23 banking centers throughout the state and one loan production office in Covington, Louisiana. Banking centers are located in the following markets: Central Louisiana, which includes the Alexandria metropolitan statistical area (“MSA”); Northwest Louisiana, which includes the Shreveport-Bossier City MSA; Southeast Louisiana, which includes the Baton Rouge MSA; and Southwest Louisiana, which includes the Lake Charles MSA. As of December 31, 2018, we were the fifth largest financial institution headquartered in Louisiana based on assets, with total assets of $1.86 billion, total loans of $1.33 billion, total deposits of $1.65 billion, and total stockholders’ equity of $193.7 million.

Our priority is to drive shareholder value through the establishment of a market-leading commercial banking franchise in Louisiana. We provide superior service through highly qualified, relationship-oriented bankers who are committed to their customers and the communities in which we offer our products and services. Our strategy is to expand geographically through the establishment of de novo banking centers in new markets and, to a lesser extent, through the acquisition of financial institutions with customer-oriented, compatible philosophies and in desirable geographic areas.

Our Banking Philosophy and Business Strategy

Our goal is to offer the best products and services delivered through a personal, customer-focused, integrity-centered culture. Our culture is “top down,” emphasizing the importance of exceptional customer service and strong relationships at every level. We are dedicated to the success and satisfaction of our customers and this commitment ensures our own continued success and allows us to deliver consistent performance to our shareholders. We credit our twenty-year track record of achievement to a disciplined implementation of this clear and focused banking philosophy.

Our mission is to be the premier statewide banking organization in Louisiana. We strive to differentiate ourselves from our competitors by providing the best of “relationship-based” banking that is tailored to meet the needs of the small and medium-sized businesses operating within our banking markets, as well as the owners and employees of those businesses, and executives, professionals and individuals with strong ties to our banking markets. In our experience, these customers place a high value on the type of long-term, personal relationship with their bank and banker that we provide. We grow our business one customer at a time through this relationship-driven approach.

In addition to being dedicated to service excellence, we are committed to the Louisiana communities we serve. We believe our community connections help us maintain a level of brand recognition, and a respected reputation, well beyond what would be typical for a bank of our size. This commitment to our communities builds a loyal customer base, and this loyal customer base helps us achieve strong organic growth and sustained profitability.



 

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We attribute our success to incorporating this customer-driven banking philosophy into our business strategy. The key components of our business strategy include:

Commercial Banking.  We are primarily a business-focused banking organization, delivering specialized services to our commercial customers. We target privately-owned commercial and industrial operating companies for both credit and treasury management services, while also providing owners and key employees with the same customized personal service for their individual financial needs. We attribute our long history of superior asset quality to our credit culture, which is built on a foundation of lending to businesses and management teams with established, proven track records. We offer these customers sophisticated products and services similar to those of much larger banks, but delivered by bankers who can provide local and responsive decision-making, personal assistance, and an interest in the success of their businesses. Key components of our commercial banking business include:

 

   

Real Estate Loans.

 

  ¡   

Commercial Real Estate Loans (Owner Occupied).  Given our strategy of focusing on the banking needs of established operating companies within our geographic footprint, 20.3% of our total portfolio consists of owner occupied office and industrial real estate loans. In addition to a proven management team and track record, we focus on businesses with a history of strong, recurring cash flows. In particular, we target wholesale and professional service companies, as well as businesses with unique strengths in niche markets. Loans are conservatively underwritten and typically carry the personal guarantee of the business owners. We believe this portfolio segment is well-diversified by industry type.

 

  ¡   

Commercial Real Estate Loans (Non-Owner Occupied).  Our pursuit of non-owner occupied commercial real estate properties is secondary, and reserved primarily for developers and other persons or entities of influence in our local markets who present additional business and personal relationship opportunities. This strategy is evidenced by our modest level of commercial real estate loans relative to our capital, which has been consistent for many years. We target property types with a greater ability to withstand changes in market forces. Our underwriting criteria for non-owner occupied properties is even more conservative than our underwriting criteria for owner occupied properties due to the higher inherent risks generally associated with the former. Our target rate of return is also higher for non-owner occupied commercial real estate loans. As of December 31, 2018, our non-owner occupied commercial real estate loans, including construction and development loans, were 21.8% of our loan portfolio and represented 137.0% of the Bank’s total risk-based capital.

 

   

Commercial Loans.  We have expertise in meeting the financing needs of commercial operating companies. This expertise is a key strength of ours, both in terms of our front-line bankers and our credit approval personnel and processes. Our specialists in these areas understand the cash cycle, working capital, and the fixed asset acquisition needs of businesses, and this allows us to deliver customizable and effective financing solutions. Leveraging the knowledge base and experience of our bankers and executives, we recommend and utilize sound commercial and industrial loan structures that limit our risks as a lender, while also helping to drive the success of our clients’ businesses. Commercial loans comprised 20.8% of the loan portfolio as of December 31, 2018.

 

   

Treasury Management Services.  Many of our clients and prospective clients have sophisticated depository needs, including ACH, sweep, and remote deposit capture services. We have a



 

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dedicated team of Treasury Management Officers (“TMOs”) who partner with our commercial and private bankers to meet those needs. Our TMOs analyze clients’ account activity and cash utilization, and then recommend and implement solutions that enhance our clients’ efficiency, mitigate risks to their businesses, and maximize their earnings on available liquidity. Our treasury management offerings and technological sophistication are core strengths, especially when combined with our ability to troubleshoot and resolve customer issues. Our TMOs provide in-person assistance with the initial setup of treasury services, as well as on-going client support post-implementation.

Personal Banking.  Our personal banking business supports our commercial banking focus, provides attractive customer diversification, and enhances our growing base of core deposits. Key components of our personal banking business include our retail banking network, private banking services, residential mortgage lending, and investment services.

 

   

Retail Banking Network.  A strategically placed network of banking centers in our markets is a fundamental element of our personal banking strategy. Our convenient network attracts customers, encouraging them to seek personal service and interact with our bankers, allowing us to deliver personal, relationship-based banking. This also supports the continued growth of our core deposit base. We are purposeful in choosing banking center locations and have sought out key locations in Central, Northwest, Southeast, and Southwest Louisiana through de novo development, as well as through two whole-bank acquisitions. We have a footprint of 23 banking centers in growing and stable communities. Our banking centers strengthen our brand recognition and reputation across our markets. Our emphasis on having a strategic network of banking centers, staffed by experienced bankers, differentiates us from our national and regional bank competitors, who are increasingly moving their customers to digital banking platforms only with limited personal service. Our network of banking locations and their dates of opening is described below under the heading “Our Historical Growth and Consistent Performance.”

 

   

Private Banking.  Private banking is a crucial part of our personal banking strategy. Through our private banking group, we provide specialized deposit and loan products and services to high net worth individuals, business owners, and professionals. Consistent with our overall business philosophy, we seek to develop long-term relationships with our private banking customers through an emphasis on personal service and products tailored to their specific needs. From checking and savings products to sophisticated financing structures, we work to meet our clients’ changing needs with innovative solutions. Our private bankers are highly accessible for their clients, offering flexible scheduling for business meetings and loan closings. This level of flexibility and service is sought out and valued by our private banking clients, many of whom are busy professionals with inflexible or on-call schedules. Our private banking group’s loan portfolio primarily consists of consumer home equity loans, portfolio mortgage loans, and commercial loans, and its deposit base primarily consists of consumer checking accounts, money market accounts, and time deposits.

 

   

Residential Mortgage Loans.  Our mortgage lending group provides home mortgage loans that are sold on the secondary market. Loan types include conventional, VA, FHA and Rural Development. In addition, the mortgage lending department plays a critical role in meeting our community reinvestment and fair lending goals. The mortgage group has a community specialist in each market focused on low-income and first-time home buyers, and we participate in various down payment assistance and low-income home loan programs to ensure the needs of our entire banking community are satisfied. We combine the power of local



 

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decision-making and in-house underwriting with the industry’s best mortgage lending products and services. We believe this approach helps differentiate us from our competitors. For the year ended December 31, 2018, our mortgage group originated $99.1 million in home mortgage loans.

 

   

Investment Services.  We offer a broad range of products and services designed to meet the investment needs of all of our customers through our investment group and our strategic partnership with Cetera Investment Services LLC, a registered broker-dealer, registered investment advisor, and licensed insurance agent. Our investment group executives, who are located in each of our markets and have an average of 19 years of industry experience, strive to fully understand each client’s unique financial situation, deliver a comprehensive plan, and provide the appropriate products to meet their needs. Our investment products include stocks, bonds, mutual funds, alternative investments, annuities, and insurance products. Our investment group also provides investment advisory services, financial planning services, and a comprehensive suite of retirement plans. The amount of investment assets under management by our investment group has experienced sustained growth, and was approximately $492.6 million as of December 31, 2018.

Our Historical Growth and Consistent Performance

 

 

LOGO

Red River Bancshares, Inc. was founded in 1998 by a group of experienced bankers and business leaders dedicated to delivering the best banking products and services while staying true to the ideals of community banking. Red River Bank opened for banking services on January 14, 1999. Two decades later, we have expanded across the state of Louisiana, and we remain dedicated to our founding commitments. We have been rewarded with continued growth and expansion, consistent returns, and a loyal customer base. We know and understand each of our markets. Since inception, we have pursued a growth strategy focused on organic growth through de novo banking center expansion into favorable banking markets, and to a lesser extent, by partnering with select Louisiana financial institutions through two whole-bank acquisitions.

After opening our main office in January 1999, Red River Bank subsequently established three full-service de novo banking centers in Rapides Parish, in the Alexandria MSA and a part of our Central Louisiana market, opening one each in 1999, 2000, and 2001. In 2003, we acquired Bank of Lecompte also in Rapides Parish. Through this acquisition, we added two locations, one in Lecompte and one in Forest Hill, as well as $33.0 million in deposits and $19.3 million in loans. In 2004, Red River Bank opened the Downtown Banking Center in Alexandria. In 2006, we began an expansion effort into the Northwest Louisiana market with the opening of our Market Street Banking Center in downtown Shreveport, Caddo Parish, which was quickly followed with the opening of our East Kings Banking Center and our Provenance Banking Center in 2007, also in Shreveport. In that same year, we opened the Highway 28 West Banking Center in Alexandria. In 2008, we added our Marksville Banking Center in Avoyelles Parish, a part of our Central Louisiana market area, and our East Texas Banking Center and our Airline Banking Center, both in Bossier City, Bossier Parish, a part of our Northwest Louisiana market. We continued our growth in Northwest Louisiana in 2011 with the opening of our Uptown Banking Center on Line Avenue in Shreveport.



 

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In 2013, we expanded into the Baton Rouge market through our acquisition of Fidelity Bancorp, Inc. and its banking subsidiary, Fidelity Bank. Through this acquisition, we acquired $110.3 million in deposits, $83.2 million in loans, and Fidelity’s four banking locations in Baton Rouge, East Baton Rouge Parish, and one banking center in Geismar, Ascension Parish, all a part of the Baton Rouge MSA and in our Southeast Louisiana market. In 2014, we purchased our Essen Lane Banking Center in Baton Rouge and relocated the Perkins Banking Center to that location. We subsequently expanded our presence in Baton Rouge through the establishment of the South Acadian Thruway Banking Center in 2016.

In 2017, we expanded our banking network in Northwest Louisiana with the opening of our Stonewall Banking Center in Stonewall, DeSoto Parish, adjacent to the Shreveport metropolitan area. Also in 2017, we began plans for further banking center expansion in Southeast Louisiana with the purchase of property south of Baton Rouge in the Highland Park Marketplace. That same year we began expansion into the Southwest Louisiana market with the opening of a loan production office (“LPO”) in Lake Charles, Calcasieu Parish. This office was closed when we opened our Lake Street Banking Center in 2018, also in Lake Charles. Currently, we are searching for property in Calcasieu Parish for the development of an additional banking center in the Southwest Louisiana market area. Also in 2018, we expanded our Essen Lane Banking Center in Baton Rouge, adding office space to accommodate our growing needs and presence in this market. Most recently, in November of 2018, we purchased property and an existing branch building on Highway 21 in Covington, St. Tammany Parish, for future banking center expansion.

Our growth has been supported by five successful equity offerings. We raised gross proceeds of approximately $12.4 million through the initial private placement offering of our common stock in 1998. Responding to continued demand for our common equity, we raised an additional $4.0 million in 2000 when we completed a second private placement offering. In 2006, as a part of our expansion into Northwest Louisiana, we completed a third private offering of our common stock, which expanded our shareholder base in this part of the state. Our 2006 offering resulted in gross proceeds of approximately $5.0 million. In 2009, we completed a fourth private common stock offering, which resulted in gross proceeds of approximately $7.4 million. Finally, in 2017, we completed the most recent private placement offering of our common stock, resulting in gross proceeds of approximately $12.1 million. In our 2017 offering, we received total subscriptions to purchase approximately $21.7 million of our common stock, resulting in a $9.6 million oversubscription amount that was returned to prospective investors in the offering. This last offering increased our shareholder base across the state, particularly in our Southeast Louisiana market. The milestones in our growth history are shown on the chart below.

 



 

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LOGO

 

The primary objective of our expansion strategy is to provide steady and consistent financial results for our shareholders. Since beginning banking operations in 1999, we have experienced steady balance sheet growth, consistent profitability, and steadily increasing shareholder value. This focus on steady growth, coupled with a disciplined credit culture, has enabled us to achieve consistent results, even through market downturns, and without having to make significant adjustments to our business plan in response to changing, and often challenging, market conditions.



 

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Over the past 20 years, we have experienced asset growth at a compound annual growth rate of 18.2%, resulting in $1.86 billion in total assets as of December 31, 2018. Of the $1.86 billion in total assets, approximately $1.70 billion, or 91.4%, is attributable to organic growth and the remaining 8.6% is from two acquisitions.

 

 

LOGO

We have maintained exceptional asset quality levels since inception through a disciplined credit culture. For the years 2003 through 2018, our average ratio of nonperforming assets to total assets was 0.26% and our average net charge-off ratio was 0.08%.

In addition to balance sheet growth and maintaining strong asset quality, we endeavor to achieve consistent profitability and returns for our shareholders. Our 2018 return on average assets (“ROA”) was 1.29%. For the years 2014 through 2018, average ROA (with 2017 adjusted ROA excluding $2.2 million of tax expense attributable to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 [“Tax Reform Act”]) was 1.02%. Our average ROA between 2001 (excluding the first two years of operations) and 2018 (with 2017 adjusted ROA) was 1.00%. We believe we are well-positioned to maintain and even improve upon our historical level of returns given increasing loan balances, a higher net interest margin, and a lower effective federal income tax rate.

To enhance internally generated capital and to support our growth over the past 20 years, we raised approximately $40.9 million of new capital through five private offerings. Our equity offerings expanded our shareholder base in our key markets statewide and provided capital to support future growth. As shown in the following graph, since the opening of the Bank in 1999 our tangible book value per share increased at a 12.5% compound annual growth rate. The graph below has been adjusted to give effect to the 15-for-1 split of our common stock with a record date of November 30, 2005 and the 2018 2-for-1 stock split.

 

 

LOGO



 

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Our Markets

Red River Bank currently conducts business through 23 banking centers located in Central, Northwest, Southeast, and Southwest Louisiana, and a loan production office in Covington, Louisiana. Our long-term strategic focus is to be the premier statewide banking organization in Louisiana. We believe our four current markets offer us an attractive combination of growth opportunities and core deposit stability, as well as loan diversity. We operate nine banking centers, including our main office, in the Central Louisiana market, which we define to include Rapides and Avoyelles Parishes. We operate seven banking centers in our Northwest Louisiana market, which we define to include Caddo, Bossier, and DeSoto Parishes. In our Southeast Louisiana market, which we define to include East Baton Rouge and Ascension Parishes, we operate six banking centers. We operate one banking center in our Southwest Louisiana market, which we define to include Calcasieu Parish.

We believe our current markets provide ample opportunities for the continued growth of our customer base, loans, and deposits, as well as the expansion of our overall market share in each area. Our goal is to replicate this growth in new markets as we continue to expand and implement our long-term development strategy. Our current markets, which are in diverse parts of Louisiana, are economic centers that provide for natural credit diversification and a hedge against industry downturns relative to other Louisiana-based financial institutions which do not enjoy a similarly diverse geographic and industry footprint. We seek to locate our banking centers and offices in the downtown and suburban areas of our markets, which contain our target customers of small to medium-sized businesses and retail customers.

In our Central Louisiana market, where our headquarters is located, we rank first in deposit market share with approximately 33.7% of all deposits as of June 30, 2018. In each of our Northwest and Southeast Louisiana markets, we ranked among the top ten financial institutions for deposit market share as of June 30, 2018. The table below highlights certain statistics within the primary markets that we serve.

 

Market(1)

   Year
Entered
     # of
Banking
Centers
     # of
Bankers(2)
     Total
Deposits
($000)(3)
     Total Deposits in
Market
($000)(3)
     Population(4)      Median
Household
Income(5)
 

Central

     1999        9        224      $ 993,331      $ 2,943,231        172,628      $ 42,655  

Northwest

     2006        7        43      $ 322,035      $ 7,548,377        401,555      $ 40,391  

Southeast

     2013        6        49      $ 260,292      $ 17,563,495        569,216      $ 51,436  

Southwest

     2017        1        4      $ 1,271      $ 4,051,863        202,445      $ 48,219  

 

(1)

For purposes of the demographic information in this table, we define our markets geographically as follows: Our Central market includes Rapides and Avoyelles Parishes; our Northwest market includes Caddo, Bossier and DeSoto Parishes; our Southeast market includes East Baton Rouge and Ascension Parishes; and our Southwest market includes Calcasieu Parish.

 

(2)

Full-time equivalent employees as of December 31, 2018.

 

(3)

Source: FDIC Deposit Market Share Report as of June 30, 2018.

 

(4)

Source: U.S. Census Bureau population estimates for 2017.

 

(5)

Source: U.S. Census Bureau’s 2013–2017 American Community Survey 5-year estimates. Includes data for the following parishes within each market: Central market reflects median income data for Rapides Parish; Northwest market reflects median income data for Caddo Parish; Southeast market reflects median income data for East Baton Rouge Parish; and Southwest market reflects median income data for Calcasieu Parish.

Central Louisiana.  Our legacy market of Central Louisiana is located in the region that contains the Alexandria MSA. Employment in the region is bolstered by a significant government presence, including nearby Fort Polk, which has the largest military installation in the state. The region boasts a diverse group of significant employers, including Proctor & Gamble, Union Tank Car, Cleco, Crest Industries, and Roy O. Martin Lumber. The Louisiana Economic Outlook Study for 2019–2020, published by the Economics and Policy Research Group at Louisiana State University (the “Economic Outlook Study”), provides an encouraging outlook for the region. While growth during 2019 is expected to be relatively flat, over 500 new jobs are projected for 2020. The above-named firms and others support this projected job growth by providing a solid base of employment for the community.



 

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Northwest Louisiana.  Our Northwest Louisiana market is located in the region containing the Shreveport-Bossier City MSA. Since our entry into this market in 2006, the economy throughout the region has remained stable and provided consistent growth. According to the 2016 KPMG Competitive Alternatives Study, Shreveport was regarded as the most cost-friendly city to do business among the 27 U.S. metropolitan areas with a population of less than 750,000. The area provides ready access to other parts of Louisiana and adjacent states through I-20, I-49 and the planned I-69. It offers a variety of multimodal transportation options, including Class 1 rail, airports, and port transportation. Top business sectors throughout the region include healthcare, finance, government, manufacturing, and telecommunications. Northwest Louisiana includes portions of the Haynesville Shale formation from which natural gas production continues to occur. The area is also home to Barksdale Air Force Base and boasts the state’s largest and most successful casino market. The MSA has also welcomed General Dynamics IT and Glovis America as more recent employers, which have together added approximately 1,256 new jobs in the area. Northwest Louisiana has the largest concentration of durable goods manufacturing in the state. Among those manufacturers are a major steel mill and a steel components manufacturer located at the Port of Caddo-Bossier. Northwest Louisiana’s diversified economy and low cost of doing business has helped create a pro-business environment throughout the region. According to the Economic Outlook Study, the Shreveport-Bossier City MSA is expected to add approximately 600 jobs per year in 2019 and 2020.

Southeast Louisiana.  Our Southeast Louisiana market is located in the region containing the Baton Rouge MSA. Baton Rouge is the capital of Louisiana and is the second-largest city in Louisiana by population. As the capital city, Baton Rouge is the political hub for Louisiana with the state government as the city’s largest employer. Baton Rouge is the farthest inland port on the Mississippi River that can accommodate ocean-going tankers and cargo carriers. As a result, Baton Rouge’s largest industry is petrochemical production and manufacturing. The ExxonMobil facility in Baton Rouge is one of the largest oil refineries in the country. Albemarle Corporation and Dow Chemical Company have large plants in the area, and Methanex relocated two methanol plants from Chile to the Baton Rouge MSA in 2014. This MSA is also home to an emerging high-tech sector, led by Electronic Arts game company and a large IBM facility. In addition, Baton Rouge hosts a number of businesses from other diverse economic sectors, including healthcare, education, finance and motion pictures. Two major state universities, Louisiana State University and Southern University, are located in Baton Rouge, along with Baton Rouge Community College, which is one of Louisiana’s largest community colleges. The Economic Outlook Study projects renewed growth in the Baton Rouge MSA over the next two years, including 6,000 new jobs in 2019 and 8,100 new jobs in 2020. This growth is expected to be fueled largely by a revival of industrial construction in the area.

Southwest Louisiana.  Our newest market in Southwest Louisiana is located in the region of the state containing the Lake Charles MSA. Major economic sectors in this area include the petrochemical industry, the gaming industry, and aircraft repair. Located in the far southwest corner of the state, the Lake Charles region has recently experienced rapid growth. According to the Economic Outlook Study, the Lake Charles MSA has been the fastest-growing MSA in the state of Louisiana for five straight years, and between 2013 and 2018 it has been the fastest growing MSA in the United States. The growth in the Lake Charles MSA has been fueled by over $117.0 billion in projects announced since 2012. Those projects include investments by employers such as Cheniere Energy, Sempra, Sasol, Driftwood, Trunkline, and G2 Energy. The Economic Outlook Study projects that the Lake Charles MSA will continue in its role as the fastest growing MSA in the state, adding 4,000 jobs in 2019 and another 5,300 jobs in 2020. The investment and resulting infrastructure in this area has created a thriving economy that we believe will support our future expansion in this market.

We believe that our commitment to the communities in which we operate will enable us to continue to gain scale and market share. We endeavor to become the leading community bank in each market that we serve, and we believe we are well-positioned to continue to grow relationships throughout our geographic footprint.



 

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Our Competitive Strengths

We believe that our competitive strengths set us apart from many other similarly sized financial institutions, and that the following attributes are key to our success:

Cohesive and Experienced Management Team

We are led by an executive management team with an average of 29 years of professional experience covering the relevant disciplines of finance, lending, credit, risk, strategy, legal, and banking operations. Our executive team has been in their respective roles with our organization for an average of 14 years each, with a majority having worked together at Red River Bank for well over a decade. Collectively, they have been responsible for executing our strategic plan and driving our growth. Our executive management team includes:

 

Name

   Age  

Position with Red River
Bancshares, Inc.

 

Position with

Red River Bank

  Years of
Banking
Experience
  Years with
Red River
Bank

R. Blake Chatelain

   55   President and Chief Executive Officer   President and Chief Executive Officer   37   20

Isabel V. Carriere, CPA, CGMA

   52   Executive Vice President, Treasurer, Chief Financial Officer, and Assistant Secretary   Executive Vice President, Controller, and Assistant Secretary   27   20

Amanda W. Barnett, JD

   55   Senior Vice President, General Counsel, and Corporate Secretary   Senior Vice President, General Counsel, and Corporate Secretary   30

(legal)

  9

Andrew B. Cutrer

   45   Senior Vice President   Senior Vice President and Director of Human Resources   20   18

Bryon C. Salazar

   46   -   Executive Vice President – Chief Lending Officer   24   20

Tammi R. Salazar

   49   -   Executive Vice President – Private Banking, Mortgage, and Investments   26   20

G. Bridges Hall, IV

   45   -   Market President – Shreveport/Bossier City Region   14   13

David K. Thompson

   53   -   Market President – Baton Rouge Region   29   4

Harold W. Turner

   69   -   Executive Vice President and Chief Corporate Development Officer   46   13

Debbie B. Triche

   49   -   Senior Vice President and Retail Administrator   25   19

Gary A. Merrifield

   56   -   Senior Vice President and Credit Policy Officer   33   4

Jeffrey R. Theiler

   54   -   Senior Vice President and Chief Operations Officer   31   4


 

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In addition to our experienced executive management team, our board of directors consists of well-regarded career bankers, professionals, entrepreneurs, and business and community leaders with collective depth and experience in commercial banking, finance, real estate, and manufacturing.

We also have a demonstrated ability to grow our company organically through the recruitment of talented bankers. We seek out and hire bankers with significant in-market experience who are naturally committed to high standards of productivity and excellence. This strategy enhances our existing business model and creates a pool of qualified executive and middle management talent, supporting scalability.

Consistent, Quality Growth Across an Attractive Geographic Footprint

We have proven our ability to consistently grow our business organically by expanding our geographic footprint in attractive markets across the state of Louisiana. Over the past 20 years, we have experienced asset growth at a compound annual growth rate of 18.2%, resulting in $1.86 billion in total assets as of December 31, 2018. As shown on the following graph, of the $1.86 billion in total assets, 91.4% is attributable to organic growth.

Asset Growth

 

 

LOGO

Our approach to growth and expansion has been strategic and purposeful. We identify and enter markets we believe will provide us with an advantage in terms of growing our loans and deposits, increasing profitability, and building shareholder value. We believe our market areas offer a beneficial combination of growth opportunities and industry diversity, as they have favorable economic environments and ample business lending and deposit prospects within our target client base. Our legacy market in Central Louisiana provides a stable economic climate, and our strong brand recognition in this market enables us to continue to build our loan portfolio and our low-cost core deposit franchise. Our Northwest and Southeast Louisiana banking markets represent major metropolitan areas and the opportunity for significant growth across all segments of our customer base. Our expansion most recently into the Lake Charles area presents us with the opportunity for significant growth and investment.

Customers within our markets have responded, and continue to respond, to our brand of banking and bankers, allowing us to continue to gain market share and provide consistent financial results. We believe we are well-positioned to continue this tradition of consistent, quality growth and success in the long-term.



 

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Conservative Credit Culture

Throughout the last 20 years we have experienced sustained growth while also maintaining our disciplined and conservative credit culture, enabling us historically to maintain strong levels of asset quality. This, in turn, has produced stable and consistent results, despite market downturns during this time frame. We believe our dedication to strong credit quality fuels long-term lending relationships with our customers and fosters balance sheet diversity.

We are not dependent upon higher-risk lending categories. Our loan portfolio is not highly concentrated in non-owner occupied commercial real estate, the construction and development sector, or the energy sector. These sectors generally exhibit a higher level of risk than certain other lending sectors, such as owner occupied commercial real estate or residential real estate.

As of December 31, 2018, our non-owner occupied commercial real estate loans, construction and development loans, and non-real estate secured loans financing commercial real estate activities totaled $289.4 million, or approximately 21.8% of our total loan portfolio, and represented 137.0% of the Bank’s total risk-based capital. Non-owner occupied commercial real estate loans were $184.6 million, or 13.9% of total loans, and represented 87.4% of the Bank’s total risk-based capital as of December 31, 2018. Construction and development loans were $102.9 million, or 7.7% of total loans, and represented 48.7% of the Bank’s total risk-based capital as of December 31, 2018. Additionally, non-real estate secured loans financing commercial real estate activities were $1.9 million, or 0.2% of total loans, and represented 0.9% of the Bank’s total risk-based capital as of December 31, 2018.

Our total loans to the energy sector, which we generally define to include companies involved in crude, petroleum, or natural gas extraction, were approximately $38.9 million, or approximately 2.9% of our total loans, as of December 31, 2018.

The following chart illustrates the diversification of our loans held for investment by major category as of December 31, 2018.

Loan Mix

 

 

LOGO

 



 

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Stable Core Deposit Franchise

Our banking philosophy, which is grounded in our commitment to integrity, personal relationships, service excellence, and a team-driven culture, attracts a loyal customer base. As a result, we have a valuable deposit franchise supported by a high level of noninterest-bearing accounts and a substantial level of core deposits. We define core deposits as all deposits excluding time deposits exceeding $250,000. Our time deposits exceeding $250,000 are held by a historically loyal customer base and are not brokered. As of December 31, 2018, core deposits were 95.0% of our total deposits, noninterest-bearing deposits were 33.3% of total deposits and our loan to deposit ratio was 80.9%. We do not have any internet-sourced or brokered deposits, and we have not historically used these types of deposits as a source of funding. We believe that our robust core deposit generation is powered by our emphasis on banking relationships over transactional banking and by our personal service, visibility in our communities, broad commercial banking and treasury management product offerings, and convenient services such as remote deposit capture and commercial internet banking. The following chart illustrates the diversification of our deposit base among our various product offerings as of December 31, 2018.

Deposit Mix

 

 

LOGO

Strong Brand Recognition in our Communities and Markets

We developed a brand that exemplifies our core values of integrity and service excellence. We believe that part of providing service excellence is having strategically placed banking centers where customers can go to begin a relationship, seek advice and assistance, and engage with our bankers. To promote our organic growth, in both our current and new markets, we locate banking centers in strategic sites after consultation and study by expert outside consultants who examine metropolitan areas for optimal locations. Our banking centers strengthen our brand recognition and reputation across our markets. Red River Bank has been voted “best bank” in the Central Louisiana market for nine years by Cenla Focus Magazine, “top 50 best places to work” in the Southeast Louisiana market for four years by the Baton Rouge Business Report, and “best bank” in the Northwest Louisiana market for two years by SB Magazine. Members of our executive management have extensive personal networks and ties to all major metropolitan areas of Louisiana. Consequently, we believe we are poised to replicate our brand and valued reputation in these important areas all across the state. We are “Red River Bank: A bank made in Louisiana. A bank made for Louisiana.”



 

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Robust Infrastructure and Investments in Technology Provide a Scalable Platform for Growth

We believe that our management, employees, and credit infrastructure provide a solid foundation for future growth. We built our banking platform to be scalable and accommodating to a growing customer base. Investment in technology is a key component of this overall strategy. We believe our emphasis on “both people and technology” allows us to compete effectively with much larger institutions, maintain our relationship-based banking philosophy, and provide for future efficiencies. Our customers’ expectations are evolving as they seek to adopt new forms of digital banking. We increasingly find that service excellence equates to real-time, digital offerings, and so we have invested, and expect to continue to invest, in the technology necessary to deliver those products and services. At the same time, we have invested in related risk management processes and the protection of the technology underpinning our platforms. We believe these investments will create operational efficiencies across our markets, reducing operational expenses. They also provide a scalable infrastructure to accommodate our expected future growth and further strengthen our “high tech/high touch” platform.

Growth and Expansion Strategy

Our mission is to be the premier statewide banking organization in Louisiana. We strive to differentiate ourselves from our competitors by providing the best of “relationship-based” banking that is tailored to meet the needs of the small and medium-sized businesses operating within our banking markets, as well as the owners and employees of those businesses, and executives, professionals, and individuals with strong ties to our banking markets. In our experience, these customers place a high value on the type of long-term relationship with their bank and banker that we provide. Through this relationship-driven approach, we grow our business one customer at a time. Since inception, we concentrated our efforts on building our market presence in key metropolitan markets within the state of Louisiana where our target customers are underserved and well-suited for the commercial, retail, and private banking products and services that we provide. We intend to leverage our competitive strengths to take advantage of what we believe are significant growth opportunities within our existing footprint and other strategic market areas that we believe complement our strategic plan. Our growth strategy includes the following:

Identify and Recruit Talented Bankers

We believe that competition for customers starts with the competition for the best bankers. Whether we expand our presence in our existing markets, enter new markets organically, or make opportunistic acquisitions, adding talented bankers with extensive in-market experience is one of our primary strategies for continued success. In our experience, our brand of banking is attractive to motivated bankers from smaller institutions that lack the platform to engage in sophisticated transactions and also to bankers from larger institutions that lack our relationship-based approach to banking. We are committed to the continual development of talent within our company through continuing education and promotions. We find that hiring committed, talented bankers, and providing development and advancement opportunities, leads to long-term continuity in our workforce as well as a strong and talented employee base with which to fuel the long-term potential of our bank.

Expand Market Share in Existing Markets

We want to be the market leader and have a significant market share in all the communities we serve. Organic growth is our primary focus, which may be supplemented with strategic, targeted acquisitions when and if appropriate. We intend to expand our banking center network by opening additional banking centers in our existing markets to provide our customers with more convenient banking locations. We understand that relationships are our strategic advantage and we continually seek to identify and recruit experienced bankers with broad relationship networks within our existing markets. We then strengthen those relationships by offering personalized products and services. We also attract new customers through personal outreach by our bankers,



 

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with targeted marketing campaigns, and by advertising in a variety of traditional media and in social media. We also reach new customers by filling the void left by competitors who are closing banking offices. Other outreach activities include helping our communities during times of need and by having a presence at community events, such as with our branded ice cream trucks that give out free frozen treats. We encourage our bankers to take leadership roles in our communities, and we are well represented in a wide variety of non-profit, volunteer organizations across all our markets.

Opportunistic New Market Expansion

When evaluating potential new market opportunities, our standard due diligence includes both an assessment of the local economy as well as an analysis of the local banking landscape. We concluded that an opportunity existed in Lake Charles, Calcasieu Parish, in Southwestern Louisiana, for a community bank with the strength and scale of Red River Bank to carve out a meaningful market share position over the long term. Lake Charles is the fastest-growing MSA in the state of Louisiana, and one of the fastest growing in the southeastern U.S. Much of this growth is industrial in nature and is driven by growth in the liquefied natural gas sector. In keeping with our established strategy of disciplined and thoughtful de novo expansion into new markets, we opened an LPO in Lake Charles in the third quarter of 2017. We evaluated this move for 12–24 months prior to commencement of formal operations.

In April of 2018, after operating the LPO for approximately eight months, we closed it and opened a business-focused banking center in Lake Charles, the Lake Street Banking Center. The Lake Street Banking Center is located in a new office and retail development, and it utilizes a concierge-type service desk, rather than traditional teller lines and is the first of its kind for our company. We are actively scouting potential sites in Southwest Louisiana for the construction of a traditional full-service banking center, with complete ATM and drive-through capability.

Disciplined Acquisition Strategy

Our primary focus continues to be on organic expansion, however, we will identify and evaluate opportunities for strategic business acquisitions as they may arise. Our historic approach to potential acquisitions has been strategic and disciplined. Since inception, we completed two whole-bank acquisitions of institutions with customer-oriented, compatible philosophies and in desirable geographic areas. These acquisitions provided us the opportunity to expand the delivery of our relationship-driven brand of banking. The first acquisition in our bank’s history was the acquisition of Bank of Lecompte in 2003. This acquisition allowed us to further strengthen our foothold in the Central Louisiana market by adding two banking centers, approximately $38.9 million in total assets, and $33.0 million in deposits. Our second transaction in 2013, the acquisition of Fidelity Bancorp, Inc. and Fidelity Bank in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, was the catalyst for our expansion into the Baton Rouge metropolitan area. This acquisition provided us with five additional banking centers with approximately $120.5 million in total assets and $110.3 million in deposits. We will continue to emphasize organic expansion going forward, and we are not currently a party to any formal or informal acquisition arrangements. We will, however, carefully consider acquisition opportunities, primarily within the state of Louisiana, that we believe are consistent with our mission and which can provide opportunities for improved profitability and to gain market share.

Our Challenges

There are a number of risks that you should consider before investing in our common stock. These risks are discussed more fully in the section titled “Risk Factors,” beginning on page 24, and include, but are not limited to:

 

   

The geographic concentration of our markets in Louisiana makes us sensitive to adverse changes in the local economy;



 

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As a business operating in the financial services industry, our business and operations may be adversely affected in numerous and complex ways by weak economic conditions;

 

   

We rely heavily on our executive management team and other key employees, and we could be adversely affected by an unexpected loss of their service;

 

   

We face significant competition to attract and retain customers, which could impair our growth, decrease our profitability, or result in loss of market share;

 

   

Because a significant portion of our loan portfolio consists of real estate loans, negative changes in the economy affecting real estate values could impair the value of collateral securing our real estate loans and result in loan and other losses;

 

   

We may not be able to adequately measure and limit our credit risk, which could lead to unexpected losses;

 

   

We operate in a highly regulated environment and the laws and regulations that govern our operations, corporate governance, executive compensation, and accounting principles, or changes in them, or our failure to comply with them, could subject us to regulatory action or penalties;

 

   

An active, liquid market for our common stock may not develop or be sustained following this offering; and

 

   

The market price of our common stock may be subject to substantial fluctuations, which may make it difficult to sell shares at the volumes, prices, or times desired.

Recent Developments

Preliminary Selected Financial Results

The following tables contain selected preliminary unaudited financial information regarding our performance and financial position as of and for the periods indicated. For the period ended March 31, 2019, the amounts and results set forth below are what we expect to report; however, these are preliminary estimates and subject to additional procedures, which we expect to complete after the completion of this offering. These additional procedures could result in material changes to our preliminary estimates during the course of our preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements as of and for the three-month period ended March 31, 2019.



 

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The following estimates constitute forward-looking statements and are subject to risks and uncertainties, including those described under “Risk Factors” and “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.” The following information should be read together with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included elsewhere in this prospectus. Our independent registered public accounting firm has not audited or reviewed the preliminary financial information, and as such, does not express an opinion with respect to this preliminary financial information.

 

     As of      Change from
December 31, 2018
to March 31, 2019
 
     March 31,
2019
     December 31,
2018
     $
Change
    %
Change
 
     (Dollars in thousands)  

Selected Period End Balance Sheet Data:

          

Total assets

   $     1,922,118      $     1,860,588      $     61,530       3.3

Cash and due from banks

     32,371        34,070        (1,699     (5.0

Interest-bearing deposits in other banks

     145,593        117,836        27,757       23.6  

Securities available-for-sale

     319,353        307,877        11,476       3.7  

Loans held for sale

     2,210        2,904        (694     (23.9

Loans held for investment

     1,349,181        1,328,438        20,743       1.6  

Allowance for loan losses

     13,101        12,524        577       4.6  

Noninterest-bearing deposits

     565,757        547,880        17,877       3.3  

Interest-bearing deposits

     1,125,377        1,097,703        27,674       2.5  

Total deposits

     1,691,134        1,645,583        45,551       2.8  

Junior subordinated debentures

     11,341        11,341        -       -  

Total stockholders’ equity

     202,184        193,703        8,481       4.4  

 

     For the Three Months Ended
March 31,
     Increase (Decrease)  
         2019              2018          $
Change
     %
Change
 
     (Dollars in thousands)  

Selected Income Statement Data:

           

Interest and dividend income

   $   17,904      $   15,572        2,332        15.0

Interest expense

     2,452        1,662        790        47.5  
  

 

 

    

 

 

       

Net interest income

     15,452        13,910        1,542        11.1  

Provision for loan losses

     526        411        115        28.0  

Noninterest income

     3,296        3,157        139        4.4  

Operating expenses

     11,158        10,307        851        8.3  
  

 

 

    

 

 

       

Income before income tax

     7,064        6,349        715        11.3  

Income tax expense

     1,368        1,118        250        22.4  
  

 

 

    

 

 

       

Net income

   $ 5,696      $ 5,231        465        8.9  
  

 

 

    

 

 

       

Common stock cash dividends

   $ 1,326      $ 1,009        317        31.4  


 

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     As of and for the Three Months Ended
March 31,
 
             2019                     2018          

Per Common Share Data:

    

Earnings per share, basic

   $ 0.86     $ 0.78  

Earnings per share, diluted

     0.85       0.77  

Book value per share

     30.46       26.64  

Tangible book value per share

     30.23       26.41  

Cash dividends per share

     0.20       0.15  

Weighted average shares outstanding, basic

     6,632,482       6,721,200  

Weighted average shares outstanding, diluted

     6,668,029       6,765,277  

Summary Performance Ratios:

    

Return on average assets

     1.24     1.22

Return on average equity

     11.69       11.88  

Net interest margin (FTE)

     3.50       3.37  

Efficiency ratio

     59.52       60.39  

Loans to deposits ratio

     79.91       81.98  

Noninterest income to average assets

     0.72       0.74  

Operating expense to average assets

     2.43       2.40  

Summary Credit Quality Ratios:

    

Nonperforming assets to total assets

     0.34     0.57

Nonperforming loans to total loans

     0.46       0.71  

Allowance for loan losses to nonperforming loans

     212.64       124.61  

Allowance for loan losses to total loans

     0.97       0.88  

Net charge-offs to average loans outstanding

     0.00       0.00  

Capital Ratios:

    

Total stockholders’ equity to total assets

     10.52     10.16

Tangible common equity to tangible assets

     10.45       10.08  

Total risk-based capital to risk-weighted assets

     16.52       15.99  

Tier 1 risk-based capital to risk-weighted assets

     15.57       15.12  

Common equity tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets

     14.78       14.28  

Tier 1 risk-based capital to average assets

     11.50       11.28  

Performance Summary as of and for the Quarter Ended March 31, 2019

Overview

In the first quarter of 2019, the Company showed continued growth in total assets, higher profitability compared to the first quarter of 2018, and improved asset quality results. On January 14, 2019, we celebrated 20 years since Red River Bank opened for banking services. Also in the first quarter of 2019, we declared and paid a cash dividend of $0.20 per common share.

As part of our organic expansion plan, in November 2018, we purchased an existing banking center location in Covington, Louisiana (St. Tammany Parish), for future expansion. In the first quarter of 2019, we hired an experienced banker with extensive knowledge of the St. Tammany community to become our area president and, effective April 3, 2019, we opened a temporary loan production office in Covington. During the second quarter of 2019, we intend to remodel and update the banking center location purchased in 2018. While these renovations are being completed, we will operate from the LPO in a leased office a short distance from the permanent banking center. After the renovations are completed, which we expect will be in the third quarter of 2019, our plans are to close the LPO and shift our operations into the permanent, full-service banking center.



 

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Comparison of Financial Condition as of March 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018

As of March 31, 2019, assets totaled $1.92 billion, which was $61.5 million, or 3.3% higher than total assets of $1.86 billion as of December 31, 2018. Within assets, loans increased by $20.0 million and securities increased by $11.5 million. The balance sheet growth was funded by a $45.6 million increase in deposits, which resulted in a 79.91% loan to deposit ratio as of March 31, 2019.

Loans increased $20.0 million, or 1.5%, to $1.35 billion as of March 31, 2019 from $1.33 billion at December 31, 2018. New loan origination activity was normal for the first quarter, and spread across all of our markets, with our newer markets experiencing the most growth. The loan portfolio was also impacted by problem loan pay downs, including a substandard energy loan that was paid off in full during the first quarter. Energy related credits were 2.6% of the loan portfolio as of March 31, 2019, compared to 2.9% as of December 31, 2018. The available-for-sale securities portfolio increased $11.5 million, or 3.7%, to $319.4 million as of March 31, 2019 from $307.9 million as of December 31, 2018. This increase is due to investing short-term liquid assets into higher yielding securities during the quarter. Deposits increased $45.6 million, or 2.8%, to $1.69 billion as of March 31, 2019 from $1.65 billion at December 31, 2018. Noninterest-bearing deposits increased by $17.9 million, or 3.3%, due to normal fluctuations in customer account balances. NOW accounts increased by $15.4 million, or 5.0%, with increases in Interest on Lawyers Trust Accounts (“IOLTA”) NOW balances and decreases in public entity NOW balances. IOLTA NOW balances were driven higher at the end of the first quarter due to a large legal settlement received by a law firm customer. These funds are expected to be reduced in the second quarter of 2019 as disbursements are made to third parties. The decrease in public entity NOW balances is a result of normal seasonal drawdowns as public entity customers distribute their year-end funds to other organizations. Noninterest-bearing deposits as a percentage of total deposits were consistent at 33.5% as of March 31, 2019 compared to 33.3% as of December 31, 2018. Stockholders’ equity increased $8.5 million to $202.2 million, as a result of $5.7 million of first quarter 2019 net income, a $3.9 million increase in accumulated other comprehensive income, partially offset by $1.3 million in cash dividends.

Asset quality levels improved in the first quarter of 2019 with positive activity related to other real estate owned. The nonperforming assets to assets ratio was 0.34% as of March 31, 2019 compared to 0.38% as of December 31, 2018. The net charge-off ratio for the quarter ended March 31, 2019 was 0.00%.

Comparison of Operating Results for the Three Months Ended March 31, 2019 and March 31, 2018

Net income for the three months ended March 31, 2019 was $5.7 million, an increase of $465,000, or 8.9% from $5.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2018. The increase in net income was primarily due to increased net interest income partially offset by higher operating expenses. As a result of higher net income for the three months ended March 31, 2019, diluted earnings per share increased by $0.08, or 10.4%, to $0.85 from $0.77 for the three months ended March 31, 2018.

Net interest income increased by $1.5 million, or 11.1%, to $15.5 million for the three months ended March 31, 2019 from $13.9 million for the three months ended March 31, 2018. Net interest income improved as a result of a 13 basis point increase in the net interest margin, on a fully tax-equivalent basis, to 3.50% for the three months ended March 31, 2019 from 3.37% for the three months ended March 31, 2018, combined with a $114.9 million, or 6.9%, increase in average interest earning assets between the first quarter of 2019 and 2018. The net interest margin benefited from the higher interest rate environment in the first quarter of 2019 compared to the first quarter of 2018. The average yield on interest-earning assets for the three months ended March 31, 2019 was 4.03%, a 28 basis point increase from 3.75% for the three months ended March 31, 2018, while the average cost of deposits for the three months ended March 31, 2019 was 0.57%, 17 basis points higher from the 0.40% cost of deposits for the three months ended March 31, 2018.



 

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The provision for loan losses for the three months ended March 31, 2019 was $526,000, an increase of $115,000, or 28.0%, from $411,000 for the three months ended March 31, 2018. The provision for loan losses increased primarily as a result of the growth of the loan portfolio. The allowance for loan losses to total loans ratio was 0.97% at March 31, 2019 compared to 0.88% at March 31, 2018.

Noninterest income increased $139,000, or 4.4%, to $3.3 million for the three months ended March 31, 2019 compared to $3.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2018. The increase in noninterest income was mainly due to higher mortgage loan income, which was partially offset by lower deposit income. Mortgage loan income increased $168,000, or 48.6%, to $514,000 for the three months ended March 31, 2019 compared to $346,000 for the three months ended March 31, 2018 as a result of a higher number of mortgage loan applications in the first quarter of 2019. Deposit income decreased $174,000, or 14.5%, to $1.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2019 compared to $1.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2018. In the fourth quarter of 2018, a system change relating to overdraft processing on electronic transactions was made which resulted in lower deposit income in the first quarter of 2019. Management is evaluating other deposit fees to replace the decrease in deposit revenue.

Operating expenses increased $851,000, or 8.3%, to $11.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2019 compared to $10.3 million for the three months ended March 31, 2018, mainly due to higher personnel and occupancy expenses. Personnel expenses increased $498,000, or 8.1%, to $6.6 million for the three months ended March 31, 2019 compared to $6.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2018. As of March 31, 2019 and 2018, we had 321 and 309 full-time equivalent employees, respectively, an increase of 12 full time-equivalent employees. The increase in personnel was related to an increase in back office staff to support increasing volumes and to prepare to operate as a public company, as well as personnel for the Covington LPO. Occupancy expense increased $96,000, or 8.9%, to $1.2 million for the three months ended March 31, 2019 compared to $1.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2018, due to new expenses in the Southwest Louisiana market related to the opening of a new banking center in the second quarter of 2018 and increased property and equipment expenses across the Company.

Corporate Information

Our principal executive offices are located at 1412 Centre Court Drive, Suite 402, Alexandria, Louisiana 71301, and our telephone number is (318) 561-5028. Our corporate Internet site is www.redriverbank.net. The information contained on or accessible from our corporate Internet site does not constitute a part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference herein.



 

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THE OFFERING

 

Common stock offered by us

573,320 shares

 

Common stock offered by the selling shareholders

26,680 shares

 

Underwriter overallotment

90,000 shares

 

Common stock outstanding after completion of the offering

7,210,246 shares

 

  7,300,246 shares if the underwriters exercise their overallotment option in full

 

Use of proceeds

Assuming an initial public offering price of $44.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, we estimate that the net proceeds to us from the sale of our common stock in this offering will be $22.4 million, (or $26.1 million if the underwriters exercise in full their option to purchase additional shares of common stock from us), after deducting the estimated underwriting discount and offering expenses which are payable by us. We intend to use the net proceeds to us from this offering for general corporate purposes and investment in our bank subsidiary, which may include the support of our balance sheet growth, repayment of our junior subordinated debentures, the acquisition of other banks or financial institutions to the extent such opportunities arise, and the maintenance of our capital and liquidity ratios, and the ratios of our bank, at acceptable levels. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of our common stock by the selling shareholders. See “Use of Proceeds.”

 

Dividends

Prior to May 2018, we did not historically pay dividends. In May 2018, we paid our first cash dividend of $0.15 per common share (adjusted to give effect to the 2018 2-for-1 stock split), and in February 2019, we paid our second cash dividend of $0.20 per common share. Any future determination relating to dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on a number of factors, including our historical and projected financial condition, liquidity and results of operations; our capital levels and needs; any acquisitions or potential acquisitions that we are considering; contractual, statutory, and regulatory prohibitions and other limitations; general economic conditions; and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. See “Dividend Policy.”


 

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Directed Share Program

At our request, the underwriters have reserved up to 68,181 shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus for sale, at the initial public offering price, to certain of our business associates and other persons designated by us who have expressed an interest in purchasing our common stock in this offering. We will offer these reserved shares to the extent permitted under applicable laws and regulations in the United States under a directed share program. The number of shares available for sale to the general public in the offering will be reduced to the extent these persons purchase the reserved shares. Any reserved shares not so purchased will be offered by the underwriters to the general public on the same terms as the other shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus.

 

Nasdaq Global Select Market listing

We have applied to list our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “RRBI.”

 

Risk factors

Investing in our common stock involves risks. See “Risk Factors,” beginning on page 24, for a discussion of factors that you should carefully consider before making an investment decision.

Except as otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus:

 

   

assumes an initial public offering of $44.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus;

 

   

assumes no exercise by the underwriters of their option to purchase additional shares of our common stock;

 

   

does not attribute to any director, officer, or principal shareholder any purchases of shares of our common stock in this offering;

 

   

excludes 20,500 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options with a weighted exercise price of $15.78 per share, as of April 3, 2019; and

 

   

gives effect to the 2018 2-for-1 stock split.



 

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SELECTED HISTORICAL CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL INFORMATION

The following tables set forth selected historical consolidated financial information for each of the periods indicated. The historical financial information as of and for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, except for the selected ratios, is derived from our audited consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The historical financial information as of and for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015, and 2014, except for the selected ratios, is derived from our audited consolidated financial statements that are not included in this prospectus. Our historical results may not be indicative of our future performance.

You should read the selected historical consolidated financial and operating data set forth below in conjunction with the sections titled “Capitalization” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” as well as our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. The selected historical consolidated financial information presented below contains financial measures that are not presented in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) and have not been audited. See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”

 

     As of and for the Years Ended December 31,  
     2018      2017      2016      2015      2014  
     (Dollars in thousands, except per share data)  

Selected Period End Balance Sheet Data:

              

Total assets

   $     1,860,588      $     1,724,264      $     1,644,877      $     1,492,702      $     1,398,261  

Cash and due from banks

     34,070        29,819        27,588        19,297        24,403  

Interest-bearing deposits in other banks

     117,836        29,848        92,921        72,946        46,151  

Securities available-for-sale

     307,877        345,344        304,766        294,885        303,874  

Securities held-to-maturity

     -        8,991        10,193        11,310        15,373  

Loans held for sale

     2,904        1,867        3,146        3,604        8,007  

Loans held for investment

     1,328,438        1,247,666        1,146,675        1,032,597        943,530  

Allowance for loan losses

     12,524        10,895        10,544        9,511        8,798  

Noninterest-bearing deposits

     547,880        504,286        475,164        394,672        356,367  

Interest-bearing deposits

     1,097,703        1,021,699        997,725        936,129        893,179  

Total deposits

     1,645,583        1,525,985        1,472,889        1,330,801        1,249,546  

Junior subordinated debentures

     11,341        11,341        11,341        11,341        11,341  

Total stockholders’ equity

     193,703        178,103        151,823        142,380        129,160  

Selected Income Statement Data:

              

Interest and dividend income

   $ 66,886      $ 58,405      $ 54,256      $ 50,383      $ 48,327  

Interest expense

     7,649        6,560        6,430        6,271        6,433  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Net interest income

     59,237        51,845        47,826        44,112        41,894  

Provision for loan losses

     1,990        1,555        1,658        946        320  

Noninterest income

     14,531        12,714        12,902        11,736        10,226  

Operating expenses

     43,422        40,473        38,361        36,294        34,441  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Income before income tax

     28,356        22,531        20,709        18,608        17,359  

Income tax expense

     5,300        8,546        5,607        4,652        4,290  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Net income

   $ 23,056      $ 13,985      $ 15,102      $ 13,956      $ 13,069  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Common stock cash dividends

   $ 1,009      $ -      $ -      $ -      $ -  


 

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    As of and for the Years Ended December 31,  
    2018     2017     2016     2015     2014  

Per Common Share Data:

         

Earnings per share, basic

  $ 3.43        $ 2.16        $ 2.37        $ 2.19        $ 2.05     

Earnings per share, diluted

    3.41          2.14          2.35          2.17          2.04     

Book value per share(1)

    29.23          26.50          23.86          22.28          20.27     

Tangible book value per share(2)

    28.99          26.27          23.62          22.03          20.00     

Cash dividend per share

    0.15          -          -          -          -     

Weighted average shares outstanding, basic

    6,716,943          6,483,958          6,378,568          6,382,411          6,364,007     

Weighted average shares outstanding, diluted

    6,756,102          6,526,828          6,416,708          6,417,083          6,393,835     

Summary Performance Ratios:

         

Return on average assets

    1.29%       0.82%       0.95%       0.95%       0.95%  

Return on average equity

    12.46          8.45          10.09          10.27          10.88     

Net interest margin (FTE)(3)

    3.44          3.20          3.21          3.23          3.32     

Efficiency ratio(4)

    58.86          62.69          63.17          64.99          66.08     

Loans to deposits ratio

    80.90          81.88          78.07          77.86          76.15     

Noninterest income to average assets

    0.81          0.74          0.81          0.80          0.75     

Operating expense to average assets

    2.43          2.37          2.42          2.47          2.51     

Summary Credit Quality Ratios:

         

Nonperforming assets to total assets

    0.38%       0.60%       0.36%       0.42%       0.40%  

Nonperforming loans to total loans

    0.49          0.83          0.49          0.57          0.55     

Allowance for loan losses to nonperforming loans

    192.71          104.90          187.56          162.47          169.65     

Allowance for loan losses to total loans

    0.94          0.87          0.92          0.92          0.93     

Net charge-offs to average loans outstanding

    0.03          0.10          0.06          0.02          0.03     

Capital Ratios:

         

Total stockholders’ equity to total assets

    10.41%       10.33%       9.23%       9.54%       9.24%  

Tangible common equity to tangible assets(5)

    10.34          10.25          9.14          9.44          9.13     

Total risk-based capital to risk-weighted assets

    16.55          15.91          14.56          14.73          14.90     

Tier 1 risk-based capital to risk-weighted assets

    15.62          15.06          13.69          13.86          14.00     

Common equity tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets

    14.80          14.20          12.78          12.85          N/A     

Tier 1 risk-based capital to average assets

    11.40          11.21          10.04          10.12          9.88     

 

(1)

We calculate book value per common share as total stockholders’ equity at the end of the relevant period divided by the outstanding number of shares of our common stock at the end of the relevant period.

 

(2)

Tangible book value per common share is a non-GAAP financial measure. The most directly comparable GAAP financial measure is book value per common share. We calculate tangible book value per common share as total stockholders’ equity, less goodwill and other intangible assets, divided by the outstanding number of shares of our common stock at the end of the relevant period. See our reconciliation of non-GAAP financial measures to their most directly comparable GAAP financial measures under the caption “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”

 

(3)

Net interest margin is shown on a fully taxable equivalent basis.

 

(4)

Efficiency ratio represents operating expense divided by the sum of net interest income and noninterest income.

 

(5)

Tangible common equity to tangible assets is a non-GAAP financial measure. The most directly comparable GAAP financial measure is total stockholders’ equity to total assets. We calculate tangible common equity as total stockholders’ equity, less goodwill and other intangible assets, net of accumulated amortization, and we calculate tangible assets as total assets, less goodwill and other intangible assets, net of accumulated amortization. See our reconciliation of non-GAAP financial measures to their most directly comparable GAAP financial measures under the caption “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”



 

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RISK FACTORS

Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before you decide to invest in our common stock, you should carefully consider the risks described below, together with all other information included in this prospectus, including our consolidated financial statements and the related notes. We believe the risks described below are the risks that are material to us as of the date of this prospectus. Any of the following risks, as well as risks of which we are not now aware or currently deem immaterial, could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations. If this were to happen, the price of our common stock could decline significantly, and you could lose all or part of your investment. Some statements in this prospectus, including statements in the following risk factors, constitute forward-looking statements. Please refer to “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

Risks Related to Our Business

The geographic concentration of our markets in Louisiana makes us sensitive to adverse changes in the local economy.

We are a community banking franchise concentrated in Louisiana. As of December 31, 2018, 93.7% of our total loans (by dollar amount) were made to borrowers who reside or conduct business in Louisiana, and substantially all of our real estate loans are secured by properties located in Louisiana. A deterioration in local economic conditions or in the residential or commercial real estate markets could have an adverse effect on the quality of our loan portfolio, the demand for our products and services, the ability of borrowers to timely repay loans, and the value of the collateral securing loans. If the population, employment, or income growth in any of our markets is negative or slower than projected, income levels, deposits, and real estate development could be adversely impacted. These consequences of a material deterioration in economic and business conditions in our local economy could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

As a business operating in the financial services industry, our business and operations may be adversely affected in numerous and complex ways by weak economic conditions.

Our business and operations, which primarily consist of lending money to customers in the form of loans, borrowing money from customers in the form of deposits, and investing in securities, are sensitive to general business and economic conditions in the U.S. The U.S. economy, as a whole, has improved moderately over the past several years. The business environment in which we operate continues to be impacted by uncertainty about the federal fiscal policymaking process. The medium and long-term fiscal outlook of the federal government and U.S. economy are concerns for businesses, consumers, and investors in the U.S. In addition, economic conditions in foreign countries, including global political hostilities, could affect the stability of global financial markets, which could hinder domestic economic growth. After a prolonged period of historically low interest rates, the past couple of years have seen a gradual uptick in both short-term, and, to a lesser extent, long-term interest rates. This impacts our ability to attract deposits and manage net interest margin. All of these factors could be detrimental to our business, and the interplay between these factors can be complex and unpredictable. Our business is also significantly affected by monetary and related policies of the U.S. government and its agencies. Changes in any of these policies are influenced by macroeconomic conditions and other factors that are beyond our control. Adverse economic conditions and government policy responses to such conditions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We rely heavily on our executive management team and other key employees, and we could be adversely affected by an unexpected loss of their service.

Our success depends in large part on the performance of our key personnel, as well as on our ability to attract, motivate, and retain highly qualified senior and middle management and other skilled employees.

 

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Competition for employees is intense, and the process of locating key personnel with the combination of skills and attributes required to execute our business plan may be lengthy. We may not be successful in retaining our key employees. If we unexpectedly lose the services of one or more of our key personnel, we would also lose the benefit of their skills, knowledge of our primary markets, and years of industry experience. We may not be able to identify and hire qualified replacement personnel on terms acceptable to us, or at all, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We face significant competition to attract and retain customers, which could impair our growth, decrease our profitability, or result in loss of market share.

We operate in the highly competitive banking industry and face significant competition for customers from bank and non-bank competitors in originating loans, attracting deposits, and providing other financial services. Our competitors are generally larger and may have significantly more resources, greater name recognition, and more extensive and established branch networks or geographic footprints. Because of their scale, many of these competitors can be more aggressive on loan and deposit pricing. Also, many of our non-bank competitors have fewer regulatory constraints and may have lower cost structures. We expect competition to continue to intensify due to financial institution consolidation; legislative, regulatory, and technological changes; and the emergence of alternative sources for financial services, including financial technology or “fintech” companies.

Increased competition could require us to increase the rates we pay on deposits or lower the rates we offer on loans, which could reduce our profitability. Our failure to compete effectively in our primary markets could cause us to lose market share and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Interest rate shifts could reduce net interest income.

The majority of our banking assets are monetary in nature and subject to risk from changes in interest rates. Like most financial institutions, our earnings and cash flows depend to a great extent upon the level of our net interest income. Net interest income represents the difference between the interest income we earn on loans, investments, and other interest-earning assets, and the interest we pay on interest-bearing liabilities, such as deposits and borrowings. When interest-bearing liabilities mature or reprice more quickly, or to a greater degree than interest-earning assets in a period, an increase in interest rates could reduce net interest income. Similarly, when interest-earning assets mature or reprice more quickly, or to a greater degree than interest-bearing liabilities, falling interest rates could reduce net interest income. Our interest sensitivity profile was asset sensitive as of December 31, 2018, meaning that we estimate our net interest income would increase more from rising interest rates than from falling interest rates. As of December 31, 2018, 19.4% of our earning assets and 4.6% of our interest-bearing liabilities had variable interest rates.

Interest rates are affected by many factors outside of our control, including governmental monetary policies, inflation, deflation, recession, changes in unemployment, the money supply, international disorder, and instability in domestic and foreign financial markets. Changes in the level of market interest rates affect our net yield on interest-earning assets, our cost of funds, and our loan origination volume. An increase in the general level of interest rates may, among other things, reduce the demand for loans and decrease loan repayment rates. A decrease in the general level of interest rates may, among other things, increase prepayments on our loan portfolio and increase competition for deposits. In light of these considerations, a failure to effectively manage our interest rate risk could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations.

A lack of liquidity could impair our ability to fund operations.

Liquidity is essential to our business. We rely on our ability to generate deposits and effectively manage the repayment and maturity schedules of our loans and investment securities, respectively, to ensure that we have

 

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adequate liquidity to fund our operations. An inability to raise funds through deposits, borrowings, the sale of our investment securities, the sale of loans, and other sources could have a substantial negative effect on our liquidity.

Our most important source of funds is deposits. As of December 31, 2018, demand deposits were our largest deposit category with $547.9 million, or 33.3%, of total deposits. Savings, NOW, and money market deposits were $767.5 million, or 46.6%, of total deposits, and time deposits made up the remaining $330.2 million, or 20.1% of total deposits as of that date. Deposits from public entities are competitive. Their balances generally fluctuate during the year and banks are required to collateralize these deposits. As of December 31, 2018, our public entity deposits were $163.9 million, or 10.0% of total deposits. Historically, our deposits have provided a stable source of funds. However, deposit balances can decrease when customers perceive alternative investments as providing a better risk/return tradeoff. Even though a majority of our certificates of deposit renew upon maturity with what we believe are competitive rates, some of our more rate-sensitive customers may move those funds to higher-yielding alternatives. If our customers move money out of bank deposits and into other investments such as money market funds, we would lose a relatively low-cost source of funds, increasing our funding costs and reducing our net interest income and net income.

Our other primary sources of liquidity consist of cash flows from operations, maturities and sales of investment securities, and proceeds from the issuance and sale of our equity to investors. As a secondary source of liquidity, we have the ability to borrow overnight funds from other financial institutions with whom we have a correspondent relationship. We also have the ability to borrow from the Federal Home Loan Bank of Dallas (“FHLB”). Historically, we have not utilized brokered or internet deposits to meet liquidity needs.

Our access to funding sources in amounts adequate to finance or capitalize our activities, or on terms that are acceptable to us, could be impaired by factors that affect us, the financial services industry, or the economy in general. These factors may include disruptions in the financial markets or negative expectations about the industry’s prospects. Our access to funding sources could also be affected by regulatory actions against us, or by a decrease in the level of our business activity due to a downturn in the Louisiana economy or in economic conditions generally. A decline in available funding could adversely impact our ability to originate loans, invest in securities, meet our expenses, or fulfill obligations such as meeting deposit withdrawal demands or repaying our borrowings. Any of these consequences could, in turn, have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We may need to raise additional capital in the future, and if we fail to maintain sufficient capital, we may not be able to satisfy regulatory requirements or maintain adequate protection against financial stress.

Adequate levels of capital enhance the ability of a financial institution to withstand periods of financial stress. For this reason, we are subject to significant regulatory capital requirements. We may need to raise additional capital in the future to provide us with sufficient capital resources and liquidity to meet our commitments and business needs, which could include the possibility of financing acquisitions.

Red River Bank must satisfy ongoing regulatory capital requirements. Regulatory capital requirements could increase from current levels, which could require us to raise additional capital or reduce our operations. Even if we satisfy all applicable regulatory capital minimums, our regulators could ask us to maintain capital levels which are significantly in excess of those minimums. Our ability to raise additional capital depends on a number of factors, including without limitation our financial condition and performance, conditions in the capital markets, economic conditions, investor perceptions regarding the banking industry, and governmental activities. Many of these factors are beyond our control, and as such, there is no assurance we will be able to raise additional capital if needed or on terms acceptable to us. If we fail to maintain capital sufficient to meet regulatory requirements, we may not be able to withstand periods of financial stress and we could be subject to enforcement actions or other regulatory consequences. Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

 

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Because a significant portion of our loan portfolio consists of real estate loans, negative changes in the economy affecting real estate values could impair the value of collateral securing our real estate loans and result in loan and other losses.

The market value of real estate can fluctuate significantly in a short period of time as a result of market conditions in the geographic area in which the real estate is located. Real estate values in many Louisiana markets have experienced periods of fluctuation over the last five years. As of December 31, 2018, $964.5 million, or 72.6% of our total loans were secured by real estate as the primary component of collateral. We also make loans secured by real estate as a supplemental source of collateral. Real estate values and real estate markets are affected by many factors, such as changes in national, regional, or local economic conditions, the rate of unemployment, fluctuations in interest rates and the availability of loans to potential purchasers, changes in tax laws and other governmental statutes, regulations and policies, and acts of nature, such as hurricanes and other natural disasters. Adverse changes affecting real estate values and the liquidity of real estate in one or more of our markets could increase the credit risk associated with our loan portfolio, significantly impair the value of property pledged as collateral on loans, and affect our ability to sell the collateral upon foreclosure without a loss or additional losses. Consequently, we could be required to increase our allowance for loan losses, adversely affecting profitability. As a result, such declines and losses could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our business may be adversely affected by credit risk associated with residential property.

As of December 31, 2018, $407.0 million, or 30.7% of our total loan portfolio, was secured by first liens on one-to-four family residential loans. One-to-four family residential loans are generally sensitive to regional and local economic conditions that significantly impact the borrowers’ ability to meet their loan payment obligations, making loss levels difficult to predict. A decline in residential real estate values resulting from a downturn in the housing market in our market areas may reduce the value of the real estate collateral securing these types of loans and increase our risk of losses due to default. A downturn in the housing market coupled with elevated unemployment rates may also result in a decline in demand for our products and services.

In addition, interest rate increases often result in larger payment requirements for our borrowers, which increases the potential for default and could result in a decrease in the demand for residential loans. At the same time, the marketability of the property securing a residential loan may be adversely affected by any reduced demand resulting from higher interest rates. In a declining interest rate environment, there may be an increase in prepayments on residential loans as borrowers refinance their loans at lower rates. Losses or declines in profitability as a result of these potential negative events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Unauthorized access, cyber-crime, and other threats to data security may require significant resources, harm our reputation, and otherwise cause harm to our business.

In the ordinary course of our business, we necessarily collect, use, and hold personal and financial information concerning individuals and businesses with which we have a banking relationship. Threats to data security such as unauthorized access and cyber-attacks, emerge and change rapidly. These threats may increase our costs for protection or remediation. They may also result in competing time constraints as between applicable privacy and other requirements and our ability to secure data in accordance with customer expectations.

It is difficult or impossible to defend against every risk posed by changing technologies and criminals’ intent on committing cyber-crime. Increasing sophistication of cyber-criminals and terrorists makes it increasingly difficult to prevent a security breach. Controls employed by our information technology department and our other employees and vendors could prove inadequate. We could also experience a breach due to circumstances such as intentional or negligent conduct on the part of employees or other internal sources, software bugs, or other technical malfunctions. Any of these threats may cause our customer accounts to become

 

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vulnerable to account takeover schemes or cyber-fraud. A breach of our security that results in unauthorized access to our data could expose us to disruption or challenges relating to our daily operations as well as to data loss, litigation, damages, fines, significant increases in compliance costs, and reputational damage. Any of these consequences could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

A significant portion of our loan portfolio is comprised of commercial loans secured by receivables, inventory, equipment, or other commercial collateral, the deterioration in value of which could expose us to credit losses.

As of December 31, 2018, approximately $275.9 million, or 20.8%, of our total loans were commercial loans collateralized, in general, by general business assets including, among other things, accounts receivable, inventory, and equipment, and most are backed by a personal guaranty of the borrower or principal. These commercial loans are typically larger in amount than loans to individuals and, therefore, have the potential for larger losses on a single-loan basis. Additionally, the repayment of commercial loans is subject to the ongoing business operations of the borrower. The collateral securing such loans generally includes movable property, such as equipment and inventory. These types of collateral may decline in value more rapidly than we anticipate, exposing us to increased credit risk. In addition, a portion of our customer base, including customers in the energy and real estate business, may be exposed to volatile businesses or industries which are sensitive to commodity prices or market fluctuations, such as energy prices. Accordingly, negative changes in commodity prices and real estate values and liquidity could impair the value of the collateral securing these loans. Significant adverse changes in the economy or local market conditions in which our commercial lending customers operate could cause rapid declines in loan collectability and the values associated with general business assets resulting in inadequate collateral coverage. These events, in turn, may expose us to credit losses that could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We may not be able to adequately measure and limit our credit risk, which could lead to unexpected losses.

Our business depends on our ability to successfully measure and manage credit risk. As a lender, we are exposed to the risk that our borrowers will be unable to repay their loans according to their terms, and that the collateral securing repayment of their loans, if any, may not be sufficient to ensure repayment. In addition, there are risks inherent in making any loan, including risks with respect to the period of time over which the loan may be repaid, risks relating to proper loan underwriting, risks resulting from changes in economic and industry conditions, and risks inherent in dealing with individual borrowers. The creditworthiness of a borrower is affected by many factors including local market conditions and general economic conditions. If the overall economic climate in the U.S., generally, or in Louisiana, specifically, experiences material disruption, our borrowers may experience difficulties in repaying their loans, the collateral we hold may decrease in value or become illiquid, and the level of nonperforming loans, charge-offs, and delinquencies could rise and require significant additional provisions for credit losses.

Our risk management practices, such as monitoring the concentration of our loans within specific industries and our credit approval, review, and administrative practices may not adequately reduce credit risk. Further, our credit administration personnel, policies, and procedures may not adequately adapt to changes in economic or any other conditions affecting customers and the quality of our loan portfolio. A failure to effectively measure and limit our credit risk could result in loan defaults, foreclosures, and additional charge-offs. As a result, we may need to significantly increase our allowance for loan losses, which could adversely affect our net income. All of these consequences could, in turn, have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our allowance for loan losses may prove to be insufficient to absorb losses inherent in our loan portfolio.

We establish our allowance for loan losses and maintain it at a level considered adequate by management to absorb probable loan losses based on our analysis of our loan portfolio, our historical loss experience, and conditions within our markets. As of December 31, 2018, our allowance for loan losses totaled

 

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$12.5 million, which represents approximately 0.94% of our total loans. The allowance for loan losses represents our estimate of probable losses in our loan portfolio at each balance sheet date and is based upon relevant information available to us. The allowance contains provisions for probable losses that have been identified by us relating to specific borrowing relationships, as well as probable losses inherent in the loan portfolio and credit undertakings that are not specifically identified by us. Additions to the allowance for loan losses, which are charged to earnings through the provision for loan losses, are determined based on a variety of factors, including an analysis of our loan portfolio, historical loss experience, and an evaluation of current economic conditions in our market areas. The actual amount of loan losses is affected by changes in economic, operating, and other conditions within our markets, as well as changes in the financial condition, cash flows, and operations of our borrowers. All of these factors are beyond our control, and such losses may exceed our current estimates.

Additional loan losses will likely occur in the future and may occur at a rate greater than we have previously experienced or than we anticipate. We may be required to make additional provisions for loan losses to further supplement our allowance for loan losses, due either to our management’s decision or as a regulatory requirement. In addition, bank regulatory agencies will periodically review our allowance for loan losses and the value attributed to nonaccrual loans or to real estate acquired through foreclosure. Such regulatory agencies may require us to recognize future charge-offs, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Finally, the measure of our allowance for loan losses will be subject to new accounting standards. The Financial Accounting Standards Board has adopted a new accounting standard that will be effective for our first fiscal year ending December 31, 2020 including interim periods within that fiscal year. This new standard, referred to as Current Expected Credit Loss (“CECL”), will require financial institutions to determine periodic estimates of lifetime expected credit losses on loans, and recognize the expected credit losses as allowances for loan losses. This will change the current method of providing allowances for loan losses that are probable, which would likely require us to increase our allowance for loan losses. CECL will also greatly increase the types of data we would need to collect and review to determine the appropriate level of the allowance for loan losses. The CECL model likely will create more volatility in the level of our allowance for loan losses after it becomes applicable to us. Any increase in our allowance for loan losses or expenses incurred to determine the appropriate level of the allowance for loan losses could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our ability to maintain our reputation is critical to the success of our business.

Our business plan emphasizes relationship banking. As a result, our reputation is one of the most valuable components of our business. If our reputation is negatively affected by the actions of our employees or otherwise, our existing relationships may be damaged. We could lose some of our existing customers, including groups of large customers who have relationships with each other, and we may not be successful in attracting new customers. Any of these developments could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We rely on third parties to provide key components of our business infrastructure, and a failure of these parties to perform for any reason could disrupt our operations.

Third parties provide key components of our business infrastructure such as data processing, internet connections, network access, core application processing, statement production, and account analysis. Our business depends on the successful and uninterrupted functioning of our information technology and telecommunications systems and third-party servicers. The failure of these systems, or the termination of a third-party software license or service agreement on which any of these systems is based, could interrupt our operations. Because our information technology and telecommunications systems interface with and depend on third-party systems, we could experience service denials if demand for such services exceeds capacity or such third-party systems fail or experience interruptions. Additionally, our operations could be interrupted if any of

 

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our third-party service providers experience financial difficulty, are inadvertently or intentionally negligent, are subject to cybersecurity breaches, terminate their services, or fail to comply with applicable banking regulations.

Replacing vendors or addressing other issues with our third-party service providers could entail significant delay and expense. If we are unable to efficiently replace ineffective service providers, or if we experience a significant, sustained, or repeated, system failure or service denial, it could compromise our ability to operate effectively, damage our reputation, result in a loss of customer business, and subject us to additional regulatory scrutiny and possible financial liability. Any of these consequences could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

The markets in which we operate are susceptible to hurricanes and other natural disasters and adverse weather, which could result in a disruption of our operations and increases in loan losses.

A significant portion of our business is generated from Louisiana markets that have been, and may continue to be, damaged by major hurricanes, floods, tropical storms, tornadoes, and other natural disasters. Natural disasters can disrupt our operations, cause widespread property damage, and severely depress the local economies in which we operate. If the economies in our primary markets experience an overall decline as a result of adverse weather or other natural disasters, demand for loans and our other products and services could be reduced. In addition, the rates of delinquencies, foreclosures, bankruptcies, and losses on loan portfolios may increase substantially, as uninsured property losses or sustained job interruption or loss may materially impair borrowers’ ability to repay their loans. Moreover, the value of real estate or other collateral that secures our loans could be materially and adversely affected by a natural disaster. A natural disaster could, therefore, result in decreased revenue and increased loan losses. All of these consequences could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our commercial real estate loan portfolio exposes us to risks that may be greater than the risks related to other types of loans.

Our loan portfolio includes non-owner occupied commercial real estate loans for individuals and businesses for various purposes, which are secured by commercial properties, as well as real estate construction and development loans. As of December 31, 2018, our construction and development loans, non-owner occupied commercial real estate loans, and non-real estate secured loans financing commercial real estate activities totaled $289.4 million, or approximately 21.8% of our total loan portfolio and represented 137.0% of the Bank’s risk-based capital. These loans typically involve repayment dependent upon income generated, or expected to be generated, by the property securing the loan in amounts sufficient to cover operating expenses and debt service. This projected income may be adversely affected by changes in the economy or local market conditions. Commercial real estate loans expose us to greater credit risk than loans secured by residential real estate because there are fewer potential purchasers for the commercial real estate collateral, which can make liquidation more difficult. Additionally, non-owner occupied commercial real estate loans generally involve relatively large balances to single borrowers or related groups of borrowers. Accordingly, charge-offs on non-owner occupied commercial real estate loans may be larger on a per loan basis than those incurred with our residential or consumer loan portfolios. Unexpected deterioration in the credit quality of our commercial real estate loan portfolio would require us to increase our provision for loan losses, which would reduce our profitability. Any of these potential consequences could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We engage in lending secured by real estate and may be forced to foreclose on the collateral and own the underlying real estate, subjecting us to the costs and potential risks associated with the ownership of the real property.

Because we originate loans secured by real estate, we may have to foreclose on the collateral property to protect our investment. We may thereafter own and operate such property, in which case we would be exposed to

 

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the risks inherent in the ownership of real estate. As of December 31, 2018, we held approximately $646,000 in other real estate owned (“OREO”). This amount could increase in the future, depending upon the level of our real estate foreclosures and our ability to efficiently divest of the foreclosed OREO. The amount that we, as a mortgagee, may realize after a default is dependent upon factors outside of our control, including, but not limited to, general or local economic conditions, environmental cleanup liability, assessments, interest rates, real estate tax rates, operating expenses of the mortgaged properties, ability to obtain and maintain adequate occupancy of the properties, zoning laws, governmental and regulatory rules, and natural disasters. Our inability to manage the amount of costs, or size of the risks, associated with the ownership of real estate or writedowns in the value of OREO could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Appraisals and other valuation techniques we use in evaluating and monitoring loans secured by real property, OREO, and repossessed personal property may not accurately describe the net value of the asset.

In considering whether to make a loan secured by real property, we generally require an appraisal of the property. However, an appraisal is only an estimate of the value of the property at the time the appraisal is made. Because real estate values may change significantly in relatively short periods of time (especially in periods of heightened economic uncertainty), this estimate may not accurately describe the net value of the real property collateral after the loan is made. As a result, we may not be able to realize the full amount of any remaining indebtedness when we foreclose on and sell the relevant property. In addition, we rely on appraisals and other valuation techniques to establish the value of our OREO and personal property that we acquire through foreclosure and to determine certain loan impairments. If any of these valuations are inaccurate, our combined and consolidated financial statements may not reflect the correct value of our OREO or personal property, and our allowance for loan losses may not reflect accurate loan impairments. These consequences could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

The amount of our nonperforming and classified assets may increase significantly, resulting in additional losses, costs, and expenses.

As of December 31, 2018, we had a total of approximately $7.1 million of nonperforming assets, or approximately 0.38% of total assets. Total loans classified as “substandard,” or “doubtful” as of December 31, 2018 were approximately $21.8 million, or 1.2% of total assets. An asset is generally considered “substandard” if it is inadequately protected by the current net worth and paying capacity of the borrower or by any pledged collateral. Assets so classified must have a well-defined weakness(es) that jeopardize the liquidation of the debt. Assets classified as “doubtful” have all of the weaknesses inherent in those classified “substandard” with the added characteristic that the weaknesses present make “collection or liquidation in full,” on the basis of currently existing facts, conditions, and values, “highly questionable.”

Nonperforming assets adversely affect our net income in various ways. We generally do not record interest income on OREO or on nonperforming loans, thereby adversely affecting our income and increasing loan administration costs. When we take collateral in foreclosures and similar proceedings, we are required to mark the related asset to market value of the collateral, which may ultimately result in a loss. An increase in the level of nonperforming assets also increases our risk profile, which may cause our regulators to require additional amounts of capital. Finally, nonperforming assets can take significant time and resources to resolve, causing the related costs of maintaining those assets to increase. These effects may be particularly pronounced in a market of reduced real estate values and excess inventory. Such losses and expenses due to any increase in nonperforming assets could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Volatility in oil prices and downturns in the energy industry, particularly in Louisiana, could lead to increased credit losses in our loan portfolio.

Although we do not believe we have significant direct exposure to energy loans, we may have indirect exposure to energy prices, as some of our non-energy customers’ businesses may be affected by volatility with

 

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the oil and gas industry and energy prices. Prolonged or further pricing pressure on oil and gas could lead to increased credit stress with respect to those borrowers. Such a decline or general uncertainty resulting from continued volatility could have other adverse impacts such as job losses in industries tied to energy, lower borrowing needs, higher transaction deposit balances, or a number of other effects that are difficult to isolate or quantify, particularly in states with significant dependence on the energy industry like Louisiana. All of these potential consequences could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

The small to medium-sized businesses that we lend to may have fewer resources to weather adverse business developments, which may impair our borrowers’ ability to repay loans.

A significant portion of our business development and marketing strategy is focused on small to medium-sized businesses. Small to medium-sized businesses frequently have smaller market shares than their competition, may be more vulnerable to economic downturns, often need substantial additional capital to expand or compete, and may experience substantial volatility in operating results. Any of these factors may impair a borrower’s ability to repay a loan. In addition, the success of a small or medium-sized business often depends on the management skills, talents, and efforts of one individual or a small group of individuals. The death, disability, or resignation of one or more of these people could have an adverse impact on the business and its ability to repay loans. If our small to medium-sized business customers are negatively impacted by general economic conditions or other adverse business developments, this, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

The fair value of our investment securities can fluctuate due to factors outside of our control.

Factors beyond our control can significantly influence the fair value of securities in our investment portfolio, potentially resulting in adverse changes to the portfolio’s fair value. These factors include, but are not limited to, rating agency actions related to the securities, defaults by the issuer or with respect to the underlying collateral, and changes in market interest rates and instability in the capital markets. Any of these factors, among others, could cause other-than-temporary impairments and realized or unrealized losses in future periods and declines in other comprehensive income, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. In addition, the process for determining whether impairment of a security is other-than-temporary often requires complex, subjective judgments about whether there has been a significant deterioration in the financial condition of the issuer, whether management has the intent or ability to hold a security for a period of time sufficient to allow for any anticipated recovery in fair value, the future financial performance and liquidity of the issuer and any underlying collateral, and other relevant factors. Our failure to correctly and timely assess any impairments or losses with respect to our securities could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We may not be able to implement our expansion strategy, which may adversely affect our ability to maintain our historical earnings trends.

Our expansion strategy focuses on organic growth, supplemented by strategic acquisitions and expansion of the Bank’s banking center network, or de novo expansion. De novo expansion carries with it certain potential risks, including significant startup costs and anticipated initial operating losses; an inability to gain regulatory approval; an inability to secure the services of qualified senior management to operate the de novo banking center and successfully integrate and promote our corporate culture; poor market reception for de novo banking centers established in markets where we do not have a preexisting reputation; challenges posed by local economic conditions; challenges associated with securing attractive locations at a reasonable cost; and additional strain on management resources and internal systems and controls. Failure to adequately manage these risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Further, we may not be able to execute on more general aspects of our expansion strategy, which may impair our ability to sustain our historical rate of growth or prevent us from growing at all. We may not be able

 

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to generate sufficient new loans and deposits within acceptable risk and expense tolerances, obtain the personnel or funding necessary for additional growth, or find suitable acquisition candidates. Various factors, such as economic conditions and competition with other financial institutions, may impede or prohibit the growth of our operations, the opening of new banking centers, and the consummation of acquisitions. The success of our strategy also depends on our ability to effectively manage growth, which is dependent upon a number of factors, including our ability to adapt our credit, operational, technology, and governance infrastructure to accommodate expanded operations. Acquisitions typically involve the payment of a premium over book and market values and, therefore, some dilution of our tangible book value and earnings per common share may occur in connection with any future acquisition. Further, the carrying amount of any goodwill that we currently maintain or may acquire may be subject to impairment in future periods. If we fail to implement one or more aspects of our expansion strategy, we may be unable to maintain our historical growth and earnings trends, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

New lines of business, products, product enhancements, or services may subject us to additional risks.

From time to time, we implement new lines of business, or offer new products and product enhancements as well as new services within our existing lines of business. There are substantial risks and uncertainties associated with these efforts, particularly in instances where the markets are not fully developed. In implementing, developing, or marketing new lines of business, products, product enhancements, or services, we may invest significant time and resources. At the same time, we may not allocate the appropriate level of resources or expertise necessary to make these new efforts successful or to realize their expected benefits. Further, initial timetables for the introduction and development of new lines of business, products, product enhancements, or services may not be achieved, and price and profitability targets may not prove feasible. External factors, such as compliance with regulations, competitive alternatives, and shifting market preferences, may also impact the ultimate implementation. Any new line of business, product, product enhancement, or service could also have a significant impact on the effectiveness of our system of internal controls. Consequently, our failure to successfully manage these types of development and implementation risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations.

We have a continuing need for technological change, and we may not have the resources to effectively implement new technology, or we may experience operational challenges when implementing new technology.

The financial services industry is undergoing rapid technological changes with frequent introductions of new technology-driven products and services. In addition to better serving customers, the effective use of technology increases efficiency and enables financial institutions to reduce costs. As we continue to grow, our success will be partially dependent upon our ability to address the needs of our customers and enhance operational efficiencies through the use of technology. We may experience operational challenges as we implement these new technology products or enhancements. As a result, we may not fully realize the anticipated benefits from our new technology, or we may incur significant costs to overcome related challenges in a timely manner.

Many of our larger competitors have substantially greater resources to invest in technological improvements. As a result, they may be able to offer additional or superior products, which would put us at a competitive disadvantage. Accordingly, we may lose customers seeking technology-driven products and services that we are not able to provide. Our inability to overcome any of these technological challenges could, in turn, have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We could be subject to losses, regulatory action, or reputational harm due to fraudulent and negligent acts on the part of loan applicants, our employees, and vendors.

In deciding whether and upon what terms to extend credit or enter into other transactions with customers and counterparties, we may rely on information furnished by or on behalf of customers and counterparties,

 

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including financial statements, property appraisals, title information, employment, and income documentation, account information, and other financial information. We may also rely on representations of customers and counterparties as to the accuracy and completeness of that information and, with respect to financial statements, on reports of independent auditors. Any such misrepresentation or incorrect or incomplete information, whether fraudulent or inadvertent, may not be detected prior to entering into the transaction. In addition, one or more of our employees could cause a significant breakdown or failure, either as a result of human error or where an individual purposefully sabotages or fraudulently manipulates our loan documentation, operations, or systems. Whether a misrepresentation is made by the applicant or another third party, we generally bear the risk of loss associated with the misrepresentation. We are often contractually required to indemnify counterparties for losses caused by a material misrepresentation, and a loan subject to a material misrepresentation is typically not marketable or, if sold, subject to repurchase. The sources of the misrepresentations may also be difficult to locate, and we may be unable to recover any of the monetary losses we may suffer as a result. Any of these developments could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

The borrowing needs of our customers may increase, especially during a challenging economic environment, which could result in increased borrowing against our contractual obligations to extend credit.

A commitment to extend credit is a formal agreement to lend funds to a customer as long as there is no violation of any condition established under the agreement. The actual borrowing needs of our customers under these credit commitments have historically been lower than the contractual amount of the commitments. Because of the credit profile of our customers, we typically have a substantial amount of total unfunded credit commitments, which is not reflected on our balance sheet. As of December 31, 2018, we had $243.1 million in unfunded credit commitments to our customers. Actual borrowing needs of our customers may exceed our expectations, especially during a challenging economic environment when our customers may be more dependent on our credit commitments due to the lack of available credit elsewhere, the increasing costs of credit, or the limited availability of financings from alternative sources. This could adversely affect our liquidity, which could impair our ability to fund operations and meet obligations as they become due. Such an inability to satisfy our obligations could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our financial results depend on management’s selection of accounting methods and certain assumptions and estimates.

The preparation of our financial statements requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of certain assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities, and the reported amount of related revenues and expenses. Certain accounting policies are inherently based to a greater extent on estimates, assumptions, and judgments of management and, as such, have a greater possibility of producing results that could be materially different than originally estimated. These critical accounting policies include the allowance for loan losses, accounting for income taxes, the determination of fair value for financial instruments, and accounting for stock-based compensation. Management’s judgment and the data relied upon by management may be based on assumptions that prove to be inaccurate, particularly in times of market stress or other unforeseen circumstances. Even if the relevant factual assumptions are accurate, our decisions may prove to be inadequate or inaccurate because of other flaws in the design or use of analytical tools used by management. Any such failure in our process for producing accounting estimates and managing risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We are dependent on the use of data and modeling in our management’s decision-making, and faulty data or modeling approaches could negatively impact our decision-making ability or subject us to regulatory scrutiny.

The use of statistical and quantitative models and other quantitative analyses is intrinsic to bank decision-making, and the employment of such analyses is becoming increasingly widespread in our operations. Liquidity stress testing, interest rate sensitivity analysis, and the identification of possible violations of anti-

 

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money laundering regulations are all examples of areas in which we are dependent on models and their underlying data. The use of statistical and quantitative models is also becoming more prevalent in regulatory compliance. While we are not currently subject to annual stress testing under the Dodd-Frank and Wall Street Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (“Dodd-Frank Act”) and the Comprehensive Capital Analysis and Review submissions, we currently utilize stress testing for capital and liquidity purposes and anticipate that model-derived testing may become more extensively implemented by regulators in the future.

We anticipate data-based modeling will penetrate further into bank decision-making, particularly risk management efforts, as the capacities developed to meet rigorous stress testing requirements are able to be employed more widely and in differing applications. While we believe these quantitative techniques and approaches improve our decision-making, they also create the possibility that faulty data or flawed quantitative approaches could negatively impact our decision-making ability or, if we become subject to regulatory stress-testing in the future, adverse regulatory scrutiny. Secondarily, because of the complexity inherent in these approaches, misunderstanding or misuse of their outputs could similarly result in suboptimal decision-making.

We are subject to environmental liability risk associated with the real property that we own and the foreclosure on real estate assets securing our loan portfolio.

In the course of our business, we may purchase real estate, or we may foreclose on and take title to real estate. As a result, we could be subject to environmental liabilities with respect to these properties. We may be held liable to a governmental entity or to third parties for property damage, personal injury, investigation, and clean-up costs incurred by these parties in connection with environmental contamination. We may also be required to investigate or clean up hazardous or toxic substances or chemical releases at a property. The costs associated with investigation or remediation activities could be substantial. In addition, if we are the owner or former owner of a contaminated site, we may be subject to common law claims by third parties based on damages and costs resulting from environmental contamination emanating from the property. Any of these potential environmental liabilities could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We are subject to claims and litigation pertaining to intellectual property.

We rely on technology companies to provide information technology products and services necessary to support our day-to-day operations. Technology companies frequently enter into litigation based on allegations of patent infringement or other violations of intellectual property rights. In addition, patent holding companies seek to monetize patents they have purchased or otherwise obtained. Competitors of our vendors, or other individuals or companies, may claim to hold intellectual property sold to us by our vendors. Such claims may increase in the future as the financial services sector becomes more reliant on information technology vendors. The plaintiffs in these actions frequently seek injunctions and substantial damages.

Regardless of the scope or validity of such patents or other intellectual property rights, or the merits of any claims by potential or actual litigants, we may have to engage in protracted litigation. Such litigation is often expensive, time-consuming, disruptive to our operations, and distracting to management. If we are found to infringe on one or more patents or other intellectual property rights, we may be required to pay substantial damages or royalties to a third party. In certain cases, we may consider entering into licensing agreements for disputed intellectual property, although no assurance can be given that such licenses can be obtained on acceptable terms or that litigation will not occur. These licenses may also significantly increase our operating expenses. If legal matters related to intellectual property claims were resolved against us or settled, we could be required to make payments in amounts that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We may be adversely affected by the soundness of other financial institutions.

Our ability to engage in routine funding transactions could be adversely affected by the actions and commercial soundness of other financial institutions. Financial services companies are interrelated as a result of

 

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trading, clearing, counterparty, and other relationships. We have exposure to different industries and counterparties, and through transactions with counterparties in the financial services industry, including broker-dealers, commercial banks, investment banks, and other financial intermediaries. In addition, we participate in loans originated by other institutions, and we participate in syndicated transactions (including shared national credits) in which other lenders serve as the lead bank. As a result, defaults by, declines in the financial condition of, or even rumors or questions about one or more financial institutions, financial service companies, or the financial services industry generally, may lead to market-wide liquidity, asset quality, or other problems and could lead to losses or defaults by us or by other institutions. These problems, losses, or defaults could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We may be adversely affected by the condition or performance of our third-party brokerage partners.

We are not registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) as an investment advisor or broker-dealer. To provide a broader range of financial and investment services to our customers, we partner with third-parties who are licensed and registered to serve in those capacities. The investment products and services provided to our customers by virtue of these third-party channels generally are not insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”). To the extent we direct our customers to these providers, or to the extent those providers deliver products and services to our customers via our delivery channels, we may have exposure for illegal, negligent, fraudulent, or other acts of these investment advisors and brokers. Although we seek to limit this exposure through clear disclosure, ongoing oversight, and through contractual provisions requiring indemnification, limitations of liability, insurance coverage, and other similar protections, those obligations may not always be enforceable, or our third-party service providers ultimately may not have sufficient financial strength to fully comply. Losses due to this exposure or our inability to effectively manage the related third-party risks may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Risks Related to the Regulation of Our Industry

We operate in a highly regulated environment and the laws and regulations that govern our operations, corporate governance, executive compensation, and accounting principles, or changes in them, or our failure to comply with them, could subject us to regulatory action or penalties.

We are subject to extensive regulation, supervision, and legal requirements that govern almost all aspects of our operations. These laws and regulations are not intended to protect our shareholders. Rather, these laws and regulations are intended to protect customers, depositors, the FDIC Deposit Insurance Fund, and the overall financial stability of the U.S. These laws and regulations, among other matters, prescribe minimum capital requirements, impose limitations on the business activities in which we can engage, limit the dividends or distributions that Red River Bank can pay to us, and that we can pay to our shareholders, and impose certain specific accounting requirements on us that may be more restrictive and may result in greater or earlier charges to earnings or reductions in our capital than GAAP would require. Compliance with laws and regulations can be difficult and costly, and changes to laws and regulations often impose additional compliance costs. Our failure to comply with these laws and regulations, even if the failure follows good faith efforts or reflects a difference in interpretation, could subject us to restrictions on our business activities, fines, and other penalties, any of which could adversely affect our results of operations, capital base, and the price of our securities. Further, any new laws, rules, and regulations could make compliance more difficult or expensive. All of these laws and regulations, and the supervisory framework applicable to our industry, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

 

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Legislative and regulatory actions taken now or in the future may increase our costs and impact our business, financial condition, or results of operations. Legislative and regulatory actions, including changes to financial regulation, may not occur on the timeframe that is expected, or at all, which could result in additional uncertainty for our business.

Current and past economic conditions, particularly in the financial markets, have resulted in government regulatory agencies and political bodies placing increased focus and scrutiny on the financial services industry. For example, the Dodd-Frank Act significantly changed the regulation of financial institutions and the financial services industry. In addition, new proposals for legislation continue to be introduced in the U.S. Congress that could further substantially increase regulation of the financial services industry; impose restrictions on the operations and general ability of firms within the industry to conduct business consistent with historical practices, including in the areas of compensation, interest rates, financial product offerings, and disclosures; and have an effect on bankruptcy proceedings with respect to consumer residential real estate mortgages, among other things. Federal and state regulatory agencies also frequently adopt changes to their regulations or change the manner in which existing regulations are applied. Any such proposed legislative or regulatory change, including those that could benefit us, may not occur on the timeframe that is proposed, or at all, which could result in uncertainty for our business.

Certain aspects of current or proposed regulatory or legislative changes, including laws applicable to the financial industry and federal and state taxation, if enacted or adopted, may impact the profitability of our business activities, require more oversight, or change certain of our business practices, including our ability to offer new products, obtain financing, attract deposits, make loans, and achieve satisfactory interest spreads. These potential changes could expose us to additional costs, including increased compliance costs. They also may require us to invest significant management attention and resources to make necessary operational changes to comply. All of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Federal and state banking agencies periodically conduct examinations of our business, including compliance with laws and regulations, and our failure to comply with any supervisory actions to which we are or become subject as a result of such examinations could result in regulatory action or penalties.

As part of the bank regulatory process, the FDIC, the Louisiana Office of Financial Institutions, and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (“Federal Reserve”) periodically conduct examinations of our business, including our compliance with laws and regulations. If, as a result of an examination, a federal or state banking agency were to determine that our financial condition, capital resources, asset quality, earnings prospects, management, liquidity, or other aspects of any of our operations had become unsatisfactory, or that we or Red River Bank were in violation of any law or regulation, it may take a number of different remedial actions as it deems appropriate. These actions include the power to enjoin “unsafe or unsound” practices, to require affirmative action to correct any conditions resulting from any violation or practice, to issue an administrative order that can be judicially enforced, to direct an increase in our capital, to restrict our ability to pay dividends, to restrict our growth, to assess civil monetary penalties against us, Red River Bank, or our respective officers or directors, to remove officers and directors and, if it is concluded that such conditions cannot be corrected or there is an imminent risk of loss to depositors, to terminate Red River Bank’s deposit insurance and place it into receivership or conservatorship. Any such regulatory action could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

We are subject to stringent capital requirements, which may result in lower returns on equity, require us to raise additional capital, limit growth opportunities, or result in regulatory restrictions.

Red River Bank is subject to rules designed to implement the recommendations with respect to regulatory capital standards, commonly known as Basel III, approved by the international Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. The rules establish a regulatory capital standard based on common equity tier 1, increase

 

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the minimum tier 1 risk-based capital ratio, and impose a capital conservation buffer. As fully phased in on January 1, 2019, the capital conservation buffer effectively requires banking organizations to maintain regulatory risk-based capital ratios at least 2.5% above the minimum risk-based capital requirements set forth in Basel III. Failure to meet the capital conservation buffer will result in certain limitations on dividends, capital repurchases, and discretionary bonus payments to executive officers.

Our subsidiary, Red River Bank, is also subject to separate regulatory capital requirements imposed by the FDIC. If Red River Bank does not meet minimum capital requirements, it will be subject to prompt corrective action by the FDIC. Prompt corrective action can include progressively more restrictive constraints on operations, management, and capital distributions. Even if we satisfy the objectives of our capital plan and meet minimum capital requirements, it is possible that our regulators may ask us to raise additional capital. For example, banking organizations experiencing significant internal growth or making acquisitions are often expected to maintain strong capital positions substantially above the minimum supervisory levels, without significant reliance on intangible assets.

Recently enacted legislation directs federal bank regulatory agencies to adopt a threshold for a community bank leverage ratio, which will be calculated by dividing tangible equity capital by average consolidated total assets. The bank regulatory agencies are required to set the threshold for the community bank leverage ratio within a range of not less than 8.0% and not more than 10.0%. If a “qualified community bank,” generally a depository institution or depository institution holding company with consolidated assets of less than $10.0 billion, has a community bank leverage ratio that exceeds the threshold, then that banking organization will be considered to have met all generally applicable leverage and risk-based capital requirements. The final regulations implementing this new capital regime have not yet been issued. If we qualify for this simplified capital framework, there can be no assurance exceeding the community bank leverage ratio threshold will provide adequate capital for our operations and growth, or an adequate cushion against increased levels of nonperforming assets or weakened economic conditions.

Increased regulatory capital requirements (and the associated compliance costs) whether due to the adoption of new laws and regulations, changes in existing laws and regulations, or more expansive or aggressive interpretations of existing laws and regulations, may require us to raise additional capital, or impact our ability to repurchase shares of capital stock, pay dividends, or pay compensation to our executives, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and the value of our common stock.

The Federal Reserve may require us to commit capital resources to support Red River Bank.

The Federal Reserve requires a bank holding company to act as a source of financial and managerial strength to its subsidiary banks and to commit resources to support its subsidiary banks. Under this “source of strength” doctrine, the Federal Reserve may require a bank holding company to make capital injections into a troubled subsidiary bank at times when the bank holding company may not be inclined to do so and may charge the bank holding company with engaging in unsafe and unsound practices for failure to commit resources to such a subsidiary bank. Accordingly, we could be required to make a capital injection to Red River Bank if it experiences financial distress.

Such a capital injection may be required at a time when our resources are limited, and we may be required to borrow the funds or to raise additional equity capital to make the required capital injection. In the event of our bankruptcy, the bankruptcy trustee will assume any commitment by us to a federal bank regulatory agency to maintain the capital of a subsidiary bank. Moreover, bankruptcy law provides that claims based on any such commitment will be entitled to a priority of payment over the claims of our general unsecured creditors, including the holders of any note obligations. Thus, our ability to secure borrowings for the purpose of making a capital injection to Red River Bank may be more difficult and expensive relative to other corporate borrowings. This, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

 

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New activities and expansion require regulatory approvals, and failure to obtain them may restrict our growth.

We may complement and expand our business by pursuing strategic acquisitions of financial institutions and other complementary businesses. Generally, we must receive state and federal regulatory approval before we can acquire an FDIC-insured depository institution or related business. In determining whether to approve a proposed acquisition, federal banking regulators will consider, among other factors, the effect of the acquisition on competition, our financial condition, our future prospects, and the impact of the proposal on U.S. financial stability. The regulators also review current and projected capital ratios and levels, the competence, experience, and integrity of management and its record of compliance with laws and regulations, the convenience and needs of the communities to be served, including the acquiring institution’s record of compliance under the Community Reinvestment Act (“CRA”), and the effectiveness of the acquiring institution in combating money laundering activities. Such regulatory approvals may not be granted on terms that are acceptable to us, or at all. We may also be required to open or sell banking centers as a condition to receiving regulatory approval, which condition may not be acceptable to us or, if acceptable to us, may reduce the benefit of any acquisition.

In addition to the acquisition of existing financial institutions, as opportunities arise, we plan to continue establishing de novo banking centers as a part of our organic growth strategy. De novo expansion and any acquisitions carry with them numerous risks, including the inability to obtain all required regulatory approvals. The failure to obtain these regulatory approvals for potential future strategic acquisitions and de novo banking centers could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We face a risk of noncompliance and enforcement action with the Bank Secrecy Act, other anti-money laundering statutes and regulations and sanctions regulations.

The Bank Secrecy Act, the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001, and other laws and regulations require financial institutions, among other duties, to institute and maintain an effective anti-money laundering program and file reports such as suspicious activity and currency transaction reports. We are required to comply with these and other anti-money laundering requirements. Our federal and state banking regulators, the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network, and other government agencies are authorized to impose significant civil money penalties for violations of anti-money laundering requirements. We are also subject to increased scrutiny of compliance with the regulations issued and enforced by the Office of Foreign Assets Control (“OFAC”). If our program is deemed deficient, we could be subject to liability, including fines, civil money penalties, and other regulatory actions, which may include restrictions on our business operations and our ability to pay dividends, restrictions on mergers and acquisitions activity, restrictions on expansion, and restrictions on entering new business lines. Failure to maintain and implement adequate programs to combat money laundering and terrorist financing could also have significant reputational consequences for us. Any of these circumstances could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations.

We are subject to numerous “fair and responsible banking” laws designed to protect consumers, and failure to comply with these laws could lead to a wide variety of sanctions.

The CRA, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, the Fair Housing Act and other fair lending laws and regulations, including state laws and regulations, prohibit discriminatory or lending practices by financial institutions. The Federal Trade Commission Act and the Dodd-Frank Act prohibit unfair, deceptive, or abusive acts or practices by financial institutions. The U.S. Department of Justice, federal banking agencies, and other federal and state agencies are responsible for enforcing these fair and responsible banking laws and regulations. A challenge to an institution’s compliance with fair and responsible banking laws and regulations could result in a wide variety of sanctions, including damages and civil money penalties, injunctive relief, restrictions on mergers and acquisitions activity, restrictions on expansion, and restrictions on entering new business lines. Private parties may also have the ability to challenge an institution’s performance under fair lending laws in private litigation. Such actions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

 

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Failure by Red River Bank to perform satisfactorily on its CRA evaluations could make it more difficult for our business to grow.

The performance of a bank under the CRA in meeting the credit needs of its community is publicly disclosed and is a factor that must be taken into consideration when the federal banking agencies evaluate applications related to mergers and acquisitions, as well as banking center openings and relocations. If Red River Bank is unable to maintain at least a “Satisfactory” CRA rating, our reputation in the community may suffer. A rating of less than “Satisfactory” may also prevent us from completing acquisitions, opening new banking centers, and attracting or retaining public funds deposits. If Red River Bank receives an overall CRA rating of less than “Satisfactory,” the FDIC will not re-evaluate its rating until its next CRA examination, which may not occur for several more years. As such, the consequences of an adverse CRA determination can be protracted, and performance may not improve in the future. In light of these consequences, unsatisfactory CRA performance could result in a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Federal, state and local consumer lending laws may restrict our ability to originate certain mortgage loans, increase our risk of liability with respect to such loans, increase the time and expense associated with the foreclosure process, or prevent us from foreclosing at all.

Certain federal, state, and local laws are intended to eliminate lending practices which are considered “predatory.” These laws prohibit practices such as steering borrowers away from more affordable products, selling unnecessary insurance to borrowers, repeatedly refinancing loans, and making loans without a reasonable expectation that the borrowers will be able to repay the loans irrespective of the value of the underlying property. It is our policy not to make predatory loans, but these laws create the potential for liability with respect to our lending and loan investment activities. They increase our cost of doing business and, ultimately, may prevent us from making certain loans. They also may cause us to reduce the average percentage rate or the points and fees on loans that we do make.

Additionally, consumer protection initiatives or changes in state or federal law may substantially increase the time and expense associated with the foreclosure process or prevent us from foreclosing at all. While historically Louisiana has had foreclosure laws that are favorable to lenders, a number of states in recent years have either considered or adopted foreclosure reform laws that make it substantially more difficult and expensive for lenders to foreclose on properties in default, and we cannot be certain that Louisiana will not adopt similar legislation in the future. Additionally, federal regulators have prosecuted a number of mortgage servicing companies for alleged consumer law violations. If new state or federal laws or regulations are ultimately enacted that significantly raise the cost of foreclosure or raise outright barriers, such could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Potential limitations on incentive compensation contained in proposed federal agency rulemaking may adversely affect our ability to attract or retain high performing employees.

During the second quarter of 2016, the FDIC and other federal financial agencies jointly published proposed rules designed to implement provisions of the Dodd-Frank Act prohibiting incentive compensation arrangements that would encourage inappropriate risk taking at covered financial institutions, which includes a bank or bank holding company with $1.0 billion or more in assets, such as us and Red River Bank. It cannot be determined at this time whether or when final rules will be adopted and whether compliance with such a final rule will substantially affect the manner in which we structure compensation for our executives and other employees. Depending on the nature and application of the final rules, we may not be able to retain and attract executives and other high performing employees. If this were to occur, relationships that we have established with our customers may be impaired and we may not be able to retain or attract talent, which could in turn adversely impact our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

 

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We are generally unable to control the amount of premiums that we are required to pay for FDIC insurance.

In response to the financial crisis and recession that began in 2008 and the enactment of the Dodd-Frank Act, the FDIC has increased deposit insurance assessment rates, which in turn raised deposit premiums for many insured depository institutions. If premiums are insufficient for the Deposit Insurance Fund to meet its funding requirements, special assessments or increases in deposit insurance premiums may be required. Further, if there are financial institution failures that affect the Deposit Insurance Fund, we may be required to pay higher FDIC premiums. Our FDIC insurance related costs were $518,000 for the year ended December 31, 2018, and $540,000 for the year ended December 31, 2017. Any future additional assessments, increases, or required prepayments in FDIC insurance premiums could adversely impact our earnings. This, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We are subject to commercial real estate lending guidance issued by the federal banking regulators that impacts our operations and capital requirements.

The federal banking regulators have issued guidance regarding concentrations in commercial real estate lending directed at institutions that have particularly high concentrations of commercial real estate loans within their lending portfolios. This guidance suggests that institutions whose commercial real estate loans exceed certain percentages of capital may have commercial real estate concentration risk and will be subject to further regulatory scrutiny with respect to their risk management practices for commercial real estate lending. Based on our commercial real estate concentration as of December 31, 2018, we believe that we are in compliance with the regulatory guidance. However, increases in our commercial real estate lending, particularly as we expand into metropolitan markets, could subject us to additional supervisory analysis. We cannot guarantee that any risk management practices we implement will be effective to prevent losses relating to our commercial real estate portfolio, and we cannot predict the extent to which this guidance will impact our operations or capital requirements.

We are subject to laws regarding the privacy, information security, and protection of personal information and any violation of these laws or another incident involving personal, confidential, or proprietary information of individuals could damage our reputation and otherwise adversely affect our operations and financial condition.

Our business requires the collection and retention of large volumes of customer data, including personally identifiable information in various information systems that we maintain and in those maintained by third party data service providers. We also maintain important internal company data such as personally identifiable information about our employees and information relating to our operations. We are subject to complex and evolving laws and regulations governing the privacy and protection of personal information of individuals (including customers, employees, suppliers, and other third parties). Various state and federal banking regulators and state governments have also enacted data security breach notification requirements with varying levels of individual, consumer, regulatory, or law enforcement notification in certain circumstances in the event of a security breach. Ensuring that our collection, use, transfer, and storage of personal information complies with all applicable laws and regulations can increase our costs. Furthermore, we may not be able to ensure that all of our clients, suppliers, counterparties, and other third parties have appropriate controls in place to protect the confidentiality of the information that they exchange with us, particularly where such information is transmitted by electronic means. If personal, confidential, or proprietary information of customers or others were to be mishandled or misused (in situations where, for example, such information was erroneously provided to parties who are not permitted to have the information, or where such information was intercepted or otherwise compromised by third parties), we could be exposed to litigation or regulatory sanctions under personal information laws and regulations. Concerns regarding the effectiveness of our measures to safeguard personal information, or even the perception that such measures are inadequate, could cause us to lose customers or potential customers for our products and services and thereby reduce our revenues. Accordingly, any failure or perceived failure to comply with applicable privacy or data protection laws and regulations may subject us to

 

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inquiries, examinations, and investigations that could result in requirements to modify or cease certain operations or practices or incur significant liabilities, fines, or penalties, and could damage our reputation and otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We may be adversely affected by recent changes in U.S. tax laws and regulations.

Changes in tax laws contained in the Tax Reform Act, which was enacted in December 2017, include a number of provisions that will have an impact on the banking industry, borrowers, and the market for residential real estate. Included in this legislation was a reduction of the corporate income tax rate from 35.0% to 21.0%. In addition, other changes included: (i) a lower limit on the deductibility of mortgage interest on single-family residential mortgage loans, (ii) the elimination of interest deductions for most proceeds borrowed under home equity loans, (iii) a limitation on the deductibility of business interest expense, and (iv) a limitation on the deductibility of property taxes and state and local income taxes.

The recent changes in the tax laws may have an adverse effect on the market for, and valuation of, residential properties, and on the demand for such loans in the future. These changes could make it harder for borrowers to make their loan payments. They may have a disproportionate effect on taxpayers in states with high residential home prices and high state and local taxes. If home ownership becomes less attractive, demand for mortgage loans could decrease. The value of the properties securing loans in our loan portfolio may be adversely impacted as a result of the changing economics of home ownership, which could require an increase in our provision for loan losses. This, in turn, would reduce our profitability, and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Risks Related to this Offering and an Investment in Our Common Stock

An active, liquid market for our common stock may not develop or be sustained following this offering.

Before this offering, there has been no established public market for our common stock. We have applied to list our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “RRBI,” but our application may not be approved. Even if approved, however, an active, liquid trading market for our common stock may not develop or be sustained following this offering. The initial public offering price for our common stock will be determined by negotiations between us, the selling shareholders, and the representatives of the underwriters and may not be indicative of prices that will prevail in the open market following this offering. A public trading market having the desired characteristics of depth, liquidity, and orderliness depends upon the presence in the marketplace and independent decisions of willing buyers and sellers of our common stock. These are factors over which we have no control. Without an active, liquid trading market for our common stock, shareholders may not be able to sell their shares at volumes, prices, or times desired. Moreover, the lack of an established market could have an adverse effect on the value of our common stock.

The market price of our common stock may be subject to substantial fluctuations, which may make it difficult to sell shares at the volumes, prices, or times desired.

The market price of our common stock may be highly volatile, which may make it difficult for investors to resell shares at volumes, prices, or times desired. There are many factors that may impact the market price and trading volume of our common stock, including, without limitation:

 

   

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results, financial condition, or asset quality;

 

   

changes in economic or business conditions;

 

   

the effects of, and changes in, trade, monetary and fiscal policies, including the interest rate policies of the Federal Reserve, or in laws or regulations affecting us;

 

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the public reaction to our press releases, our other public announcements, and our filings with the SEC;

 

   

changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations, or principles;

 

   

the number of securities analysts covering us;

 

   

publication of research reports about us, our competitors, or the financial services industry generally, or changes in, or failure to meet, securities analysts’ estimates of our financial and operating performance, or lack of research reports by industry analysts or ceasing of coverage;

 

   

changes in market valuations or earnings of companies that investors deem comparable to us;

 

   

the trading volume of our common stock;

 

   

future issuances of our common stock or other securities;

 

   

future sales of our common stock by us or our directors, executive officers, or significant shareholders;

 

   

additions or departures of key personnel;

 

   

perceptions in the marketplace regarding our competitors and us;

 

   

significant acquisitions or business combinations, strategic partnerships, joint ventures, or capital commitments by or involving our competitors or us;

 

   

other economic, competitive, governmental, regulatory, and technological factors affecting our operations, pricing, products, and services; and

 

   

other news, announcements, or disclosures (whether by us or others) related to us, our competitors, our core market, or the financial services industry.

In particular, the realization of any of the risks described in this “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus could have a material adverse effect on the market price of our common stock, causing the value of any investment to decline. The stock market and, in particular, the market for financial institution stocks has experienced substantial fluctuations in recent years, which in many cases has been unrelated to the operating performance and prospects of particular companies. In addition, significant fluctuations in the trading volume in our common stock may cause significant price variations to occur. Increased market volatility could have an adverse effect on the market price of our common stock, which could make it difficult for investors to sell shares at volumes, prices, or times desired.

Future sales or the availability for sale of substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market could adversely affect the prevailing market price of our common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital through future sales of equity securities.

Our articles of incorporation authorize us to issue up to 30,000,000 shares of common stock, 7,210,246 of which will be outstanding upon consummation of this offering (or 7,300,246 shares if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full). This number includes 600,000 shares that we and the selling shareholders are selling in this offering (or 690,000 shares if the underwriters exercise their option to purchase additional shares in full), which will be freely transferable without restriction or further registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (“Securities Act”). Our executive officers, directors, the selling shareholders, and certain other persons who beneficially own approximately 38.83% of the shares of our

 

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common stock prior to this offering including vested and unexercised stock options, have agreed not to sell any shares of our common stock for a period of 180 days from the date of the underwriting agreement, subject to certain exceptions. See “Underwriting.” Following the expiration of the applicable lock-up period, all of these shares will be eligible for resale under Rule 144 of the Securities Act, subject to compliance with our insider trading policies, any remaining holding period requirements and, if applicable, volume limitations. The remaining shares of common stock outstanding prior to this offering are not subject to lock-up agreements and substantially all of such shares have been held by our non-affiliates for at least one year and therefore may be freely sold by such persons upon the completion of this offering. See “Shares Eligible for Future Sale” for a discussion of the shares of our common stock that may be sold into the public market in the future.

In addition, we may issue shares of our common stock or other securities as consideration for future acquisitions and investments and under compensation and incentive plans. If any such acquisition or investment is significant, the number of shares of our common stock, or the number or aggregate principal amount, as the case may be, of other securities that we may issue may be substantial. We may also grant registration rights covering those shares of our common stock or other securities in connection with any such acquisition or investment.

We cannot predict the size of future issuances of our common stock or the effect, if any, that future issuances and sales of our common stock will have on the market price of our common stock. Sales of substantial amounts of our common stock (including shares of our common stock issued in connection with an acquisition or under a compensation or incentive plan), or the perception that such sales could occur, may adversely affect prevailing market prices for our common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital through future sales of our securities.

Investors in this offering will experience immediate and substantial dilution, and future equity issuances could result in additional dilution, which could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

If you purchase common stock in this offering, you will pay more for your shares than the tangible book value per share immediately prior to the completion of the offering. As a result of the offering, you will incur immediate dilution of $14.20 per share, representing the difference between the initial public offering price of $44.00 per share (the midpoint of the range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus) and our as adjusted tangible book value per share. Accordingly, if we were liquidated at our as adjusted tangible book value, you would not receive the full amount of your investment. See “Dilution.”

In addition, we are generally not restricted from issuing additional shares of our common stock in the future. Our articles of incorporation authorize the issuance of up to the 30,000,000 common shares, subject to the shareholder approval rules of the Nasdaq Stock Market. We may issue additional shares of our common stock, or securities convertible into or exchangeable for such shares, in subsequent public or private offerings or in connection with future acquisitions. If we choose to raise capital by selling shares of our common stock, the issuance could have a dilutive effect on the holders of our common stock and could have a material adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.

Our directors and named executive officers have significant control over our business.

As of April 3, 2019, our directors and named executive officers beneficially owned an aggregate of 1,714,984 shares, or approximately 25.76%, of our issued and outstanding shares of common stock, including vested and unexercised stock options. Following the completion of this offering, our directors and named executive officers will beneficially own approximately 23.35% of our outstanding common stock including vested and unexercised stock options. Consequently, our management and board of directors may be able to significantly affect the outcome of the election of directors and the potential outcome of other matters submitted to a vote of our shareholders, such as mergers, the sale of substantially all of our assets, and other extraordinary corporate matters. The interests of these insiders could conflict with the interests of our other shareholders, including you.

 

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We have broad discretion in the use of the net proceeds from this offering, and our use of those proceeds may not yield a favorable return to investors.

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of shares in this offering, along with available cash, for general corporate purposes and investment in our bank subsidiary, which may include the support of our balance sheet growth, repayment of our junior subordinated debentures, the acquisition of other banks or financial institutions to the extent such opportunities arise, and the maintenance of our capital and liquidity ratios, and the ratios of our bank, at acceptable levels. We will not receive any of the proceeds from the sale of our common stock in this offering by the selling shareholders. We have not specifically allocated the amount of net proceeds that will be used for these purposes, and our management will have broad discretion over how these proceeds are used and could spend the proceeds in ways with which investors may not agree. In addition, we may not use the proceeds of this offering effectively or in a manner that increases our market value or enhances our profitability. We have not established a timetable for the effective deployment of the proceeds, and we cannot predict how long it will take to deploy the proceeds. Investing the offering proceeds in securities until we are able to deploy the proceeds will provide lower yields than we generally earn on loans. This may have an adverse effect on our profitability, which will reduce the return on your investment. Although we may, from time to time in the ordinary course of business, evaluate potential acquisition opportunities that we believe provide attractive risk-adjusted returns, we do not have any arrangements or understandings relating to any acquisitions, nor are we engaged in negotiations with any potential acquisition targets.

The rights of our common shareholders are generally subordinate to the rights of the holders of our debt securities and may be subordinate to the holders of any debt securities or preferred stock that we may issue in the future.

We have an aggregate of $11.3 million in indebtedness in the form of junior subordinated debentures. Our existing indebtedness is, and any future indebtedness that we may incur will be, senior to our common stock. As a result, we must make payments on our indebtedness before any dividends can be paid on our common stock, and, in the event of our bankruptcy, dissolution, or liquidation, the holders of our indebtedness must be satisfied in full before any distributions can be made to the holders of our common stock.

Although we have not historically issued shares of preferred stock, our board of directors has the authority to issue in the aggregate up to 1,000,000 such shares, and to determine the terms of each issue of preferred stock and any indebtedness, without shareholder approval. Accordingly, you should assume that any shares of preferred stock and any indebtedness that we may issue in the future will also be senior to our common stock. As a result, holders of our common stock bear the risk that our future issuances of debt or equity securities or our incurrence of other borrowings may negatively affect the market price of our common stock.

The obligations associated with being a public company will require significant resources and management attention.

As a public company, we will face increased legal, accounting, administrative, and other costs and expenses that we have not incurred as a private company, particularly after we are no longer an emerging growth company. After the completion of this offering, we will be subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, which requires that we file annual, quarterly, and current reports with respect to our business and financial condition and proxy and other information statements, and the rules and regulations implemented by the SEC, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, Dodd-Frank Act, the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, and the Nasdaq Stock Market, each of which imposes additional reporting and other obligations on public companies. We expect these rules and regulations and changes in laws, regulations, and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosure to increase legal and financial compliance costs and make some activities more time consuming and costly. Our investment in compliance with existing and evolving regulatory requirements will result in increased administrative expenses and a diversion of management’s time and attention from revenue-generating activities and other strategic objectives. These increased costs and diversion of resources could, in turn, have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

 

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We expect significant increases in accounting and other expenses related to our internal controls over financial reporting as a public company, and any deficiencies in our financial reporting or internal controls could adversely affect our business and the market price of our common stock.

As a public company, we will incur significant legal, accounting, insurance, and other expenses. Our compliance with the rules of the SEC and the Nasdaq Stock Market will result in increases to our legal and financial compliance costs and make some activities more time consuming and costly. For so long as we are an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act, SEC rules will permit our Chief Executive Officer and Chief Financial Officer to certify the existence and effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting. However, beginning with the time we are no longer an “emerging growth company,” we will be required to engage an independent registered public accounting firm to audit and opine on the design and operating effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting. This process will require significant documentation of policies, procedures, and systems, and review of that documentation and testing of our internal controls over financial reporting by our internal auditing and accounting staff and an independent registered public accounting firm. Consequently, we may experience higher than anticipated operating expenses and outside auditor fees during the implementation of these changes and thereafter. This process will also require considerable time and attention from management and may otherwise strain our resources, which, in turn, could prevent us from successfully implementing our business initiatives.

During the course of our evaluation, we may identify deficiencies that would have to be remediated to satisfy the SEC rules for certification of our internal controls over financial reporting. If any material weakness is identified, we may be required to include related disclosures in periodic reports we file with the SEC. The existence of a material weakness would preclude management from concluding that our internal controls over financial reporting is effective and would preclude our independent auditors from expressing an unqualified opinion on the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting. In addition, disclosures of deficiencies of this type in our SEC reports could cause investors to lose confidence in our financial reporting, may negatively affect the market price of our common stock, and could result in the delisting of our securities from the securities exchanges on which they trade. Moreover, effective internal controls are necessary to produce reliable and timely financial reports and to prevent fraud. In light of these considerations, deficiencies in our disclosure controls and procedures or internal controls over financial reporting could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

There are material limitations with making preliminary estimates of our financial results for the period ended March 31, 2019 prior to the completion of our and our auditors’ financial review procedures for such period.

The preliminary financial estimates contained in “Prospectus Summary — Recent Developments” are not a comprehensive statement of our financial results for the period ended March 31, 2019, and our auditors have not yet completed their review of such financial results. Our financial statements for the period ended March 31, 2019 will not be available until after this offering is completed and, consequently, will not be available to you prior to investing in this offering. Our actual financial results for the period ended March 31, 2019 may differ materially from the preliminary financial estimates we have provided as a result of the completion of our financial closing procedures, final adjustments, and other developments arising between now and the time that our financial results for such periods are finalized. The preliminary financial data included herein has been prepared by, and are the responsibility of, management. Postlethwaite & Netterville, APAC, our independent registered public accounting firm, has not audited, reviewed, compiled, or performed any procedures with respect to such preliminary estimates. Accordingly, Postlethwaite & Netterville, APAC does not express an opinion or any other form of assurance with respect thereto.

We are an “emerging growth company,” and the reduced reporting requirements applicable to emerging growth companies may make our common stock less attractive to investors.

We are an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act. For as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company we are eligible to take advantage of certain exemptions from various reporting

 

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requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies.” These include, without limitation, an exemption from the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced financial reporting requirements, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements and exemptions from the requirements of holding a non-binding advisory vote on executive compensation and shareholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved.

We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (i) the end of the fiscal year during which we have total annual gross revenues of $1.07 billion or more, (ii) the last day of the fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the completion of this offering, (iii) the date on which we have, during the previous three-year period, issued more than $1.0 billion in non-convertible debt securities, and (iv) the date on which we are deemed to be a “large accelerated filer” under the Exchange Act. Investors may find our common stock less attractive if we rely on these exemptions, which may result in a less active trading market and increased volatility in our stock price.

Our dividend policy may change without notice, and our future ability to pay dividends is subject to restrictions.

Holders of our common stock are entitled to receive only such cash dividends as our board of directors may declare out of funds legally available for the payment of dividends. Although we paid our first cash dividend in May 2018 and paid our second cash dividend in February 2019, we have no obligation to continue paying dividends, and we may change our dividend policy at any time without notice to our shareholders. Our ability to pay dividends may also be limited on account of our outstanding indebtedness, as we generally must make payments on our junior subordinated debentures and our outstanding indebtedness before any dividends can be paid on our common stock. Also, because our primary earning asset is our investment in the capital stock of Red River Bank, we may become dependent upon dividends from the bank to pay our operating expenses, satisfy our obligations, and pay dividends on our common stock. Red River Bank’s ability to pay dividends on its common stock will substantially depend upon its earnings and financial condition, liquidity and capital requirements, the general economic and regulatory climate, and other factors deemed relevant by its board of directors. There are numerous laws and banking regulations and guidance that limit our and Red River Bank’s ability to pay dividends. See “Dividend Policy” and “Supervision and Regulation.”

Our corporate governance documents, and certain corporate and banking laws applicable to us, could make a takeover more difficult.

Certain provisions of our articles of incorporation and bylaws, each as amended and restated, and corporate and federal banking laws, could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire control of our organization or conduct a proxy contest, even if those events were perceived by many of our shareholders as beneficial to their interests. These provisions, and the corporate and banking laws and regulations applicable to us:

 

   

enable our board of directors to issue additional shares of authorized, but unissued capital stock;

 

   

do not provide preemptive rights to our shareholders;

 

   

enable our board of directors to issue “blank check” preferred stock with such designations, rights, and preferences as may be determined from time to time by the board;

 

   

enable our board of directors to increase the size of the board and fill the vacancies created by the increase;

 

   

do not provide for cumulative voting in the election of directors;

 

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enable our board of directors to amend our bylaws without shareholder approval;

 

   

require the request of holders of at least 25% of the outstanding shares of our capital stock entitled to vote at a meeting to call a special shareholders’ meeting;

 

   

establish an advance notice procedure for director nominations and other shareholder proposals; and

 

   

require prior regulatory application and approval of any transaction involving control of our organization.

These provisions may discourage potential acquisition proposals and could delay or prevent a change in control, including under circumstances in which our shareholders might otherwise receive a premium over the market price of our shares. See “Description of Capital Stock.”

An investment in our common stock is not an insured deposit and is subject to risk of loss.

Your investment in our common stock will not be a bank deposit and will not be insured or guaranteed by the FDIC or any other government agency. Your investment will be subject to investment risk, and you must be capable of affording the loss of your entire investment.

Securities analysts may not initiate or continue coverage on us.

The trading market for our common stock will depend, in part, on the research and reports that securities analysts publish about us and our business. We do not have any control over these securities analysts, and they may not cover us. If one or more of these analysts cease to cover us or fail to publish regular reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause the price or trading volume of our common stock to decline. If we are covered by securities analysts and are the subject of an unfavorable report, the price of our common stock may decline.

 

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus contains forward-looking statements, which reflect our current views with respect to, among other things, future events and our financial performance. These statements are often, but not always, made through the use of words or phrases such as “may,” “should,” “could,” “predict,” “potential,” “believe,” “will likely result,” “expect,” “continue,” “will,” “anticipate,” “seek,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “projection,” “would,” and “outlook,” or the negative version of those words, or such other comparable words or phrases of a future or forward-looking nature. These forward-looking statements are not historical facts, and are based on current expectations, estimates and projections about our industry, management’s beliefs and certain assumptions made by management, many of which, by their nature, are inherently uncertain and beyond our control. Accordingly, we caution you that any such forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to risks, assumptions, and uncertainties that are difficult to predict. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in these forward-looking statements are reasonable as of the date made, actual results may prove to be materially different from the results expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements.

There are or will be important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from those indicated in these forward-looking statements, including, but not limited to, the following:

 

   

business and economic conditions generally and in the financial services industry, nationally and within our local market areas;

 

   

government intervention in the U.S. financial system;

 

   

changes in management personnel;

 

   

increased competition in the financial services industry, particularly from regional and national institutions;

 

   

volatility and direction of market interest rates;

 

   

our ability to maintain important deposit customer relationships, our reputation, or to otherwise avoid liquidity risks;

 

   

factors that can impact the performance of our loan portfolio, including real estate values and liquidity in our primary market areas, the financial health of our commercial borrowers and the success of construction projects that we finance, including any loans acquired in acquisition transactions;

 

   

changes in the value of collateral securing our loans;

 

   

risks associated with system failures or failures to protect against cybersecurity threats, such as breaches of our network security;

 

   

deterioration of our asset quality;

 

   

the adequacy of our reserves, including our allowance for loan losses;

 

   

operational risks associated with our business;

 

   

natural disasters and adverse weather, acts of terrorism, an outbreak of hostilities or other international or domestic calamities, and other matters beyond our control;

 

   

our ability to prudently manage our growth and execute our strategy;

 

   

compliance with the extensive regulatory framework that applies to us;

 

   

changes in the laws, rules, regulations, interpretations, or policies relating to financial institution, accounting, tax, trade, monetary, and fiscal matters;

 

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the impact of recent and future legislative and regulatory changes, including the Tax Reform Act, the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief and Consumer Protection Act (“Economic Growth Act”), and other changes in banking, securities, accounting, and tax laws and regulations, and their application by our regulators; and

 

   

other factors that are discussed in the sections titled “Risk Factors,” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.”

The foregoing factors should not be construed as exhaustive and should be read together with the other cautionary statements included in this prospectus. If one or more events related to these or other risks or uncertainties materialize, or if our underlying assumptions prove to be incorrect, actual results may differ materially from what we anticipate. Accordingly, you should not place undue reliance on any such forward-looking statements. Any forward-looking statement speaks only as of the date on which it is made, and we do not undertake any obligation to publicly update or review any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future developments, or otherwise. New factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict which will arise. In addition, we cannot assess the impact of each factor on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements.

 

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USE OF PROCEEDS

Assuming an initial public offering price of $44.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the offering price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, we estimate that the net proceeds to us from the sale of our common stock in this offering, after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and offering expenses payable by us will be approximately $22.4 million, or approximately $26.1 million if the underwriters elect to exercise in full the overallotment option. We will not receive any proceeds from the sale of shares of our common stock by the selling shareholders.

Each $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price would increase (decrease) the net proceeds to us from this offering by approximately $539,000, or approximately $624,000 if the underwriters elect to exercise in full the overallotment option, assuming the number of shares we sell, as set forth on the cover of this prospectus, remains the same, after deducting underwriting discounts and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

We intend to use the net proceeds to us from this offering for general corporate purposes and investment in our bank subsidiary, which may include the support of our balance sheet growth, repayment of our junior subordinated debentures (the terms of which are included in the section entitled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”), the acquisition of other banks or financial institutions to the extent such opportunities arise, and the maintenance of our capital and liquidity ratios, and the ratios of our bank, at acceptable levels.

We have not specifically allocated the amount of net proceeds to us that will be used for these purposes and our management will have broad discretion over how these proceeds are used. We are conducting this offering at this time because we believe that it will allow us to better execute our growth strategy. Although we may, from time to time in the ordinary course of business, evaluate potential acquisition opportunities that we believe provide attractive risk-adjusted returns, we do not have any immediate plans, arrangements, or understandings relating to any acquisitions, nor are we engaged in negotiations with any potential acquisition targets.

 

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DIVIDEND POLICY

Prior to May 2018, we did not historically pay dividends. In May 2018, we paid our first cash dividend of $0.15 per common share (adjusted to give effect to the 2018 2-for-1 stock split), or $1.0 million in the aggregate, and in February 2019, we paid our second cash dividend of $0.20 per common share, or $1.3 million in the aggregate. Any future determination relating to dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on a number of factors, including our historical and projected financial condition, liquidity and results of operations; our capital levels and needs; any acquisitions or potential acquisitions that we are considering; contractual, statutory, and regulatory prohibitions and other limitations; general economic conditions; and other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. We cannot assure you that we will continue to pay dividends to holders of our common stock in the future.

Dividend Restrictions

As a Louisiana corporation, we are subject to certain restrictions on dividends under the Louisiana Business Corporation Act (“LBCA”). Generally, a Louisiana corporation may pay dividends to its shareholders unless, after giving effect to the dividend, either: (1) the corporation would not be able to pay its debts as they come due in the usual course of business; or (2) the corporation’s total assets would be less than the sum of its total liabilities and the amount that would be needed, if the corporation were to be dissolved at the time of the payment of the dividend, to satisfy the preferential rights of shareholders whose preferential rights are superior to those receiving the dividend.

Our status as a bank holding company also affects our ability to pay dividends in two additional ways. First, since we are a holding company with no material business activities of our own, our ability to pay dividends could become dependent upon the ability of Red River Bank to transfer funds to us in the form of dividends, loans, and advances. The Bank’s ability to pay dividends and make other distributions and payments to us is itself subject to various legal, regulatory, and other restrictions, and the present and future dividend policy of Red River Bank is subject to the discretion of its board of directors. Second, as a bank holding company, our payment of dividends must comply with the laws, regulations, and policies of the Federal Reserve. The Federal Reserve has issued a supervisory letter on the payment of cash dividends by bank holding companies, which expresses the Federal Reserve’s view that a bank holding company should pay cash dividends only to the extent that the holding company’s net income for the past four quarters, net of any dividends previously paid during that period, is sufficient to cover both the cash dividends and a rate of earnings retention that is consistent with the bank holding company’s capital needs, asset quality, and overall financial condition. See “Supervision and Regulation” for more information about regulatory limitations that may affect Red River Bank’s and our ability to pay dividends.

Our ability to pay dividends may also be limited on account of our outstanding indebtedness. We have outstanding three series of junior subordinated debentures. We must make payments on our junior subordinated debentures before any dividends can be paid on our common stock. We would expect to be subject to similar restrictions with respect to any other indebtedness that we may incur in the future.

 

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CAPITALIZATION

The following table shows our capitalization, including regulatory capital ratios, on a consolidated basis, as of December 31, 2018:

 

   

on an actual basis; and

 

   

on a pro forma basis, after giving effect to the net proceeds from the sale by us of 573,320 shares of our common stock in this offering (assuming the underwriters do not exercise the overallotment option) at an assumed initial public offering price of $44.00 per share, which is the midpoint of the price range on the cover of this prospectus, after deducting underwriting discounts and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

A $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $44.00 per share would increase (decrease) the as adjusted amount of our total stockholders’ equity by approximately $539,000, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, and after deducting the underwriting discounts and estimated offering expenses payable by us. If the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares is exercised in full, the as adjusted amount of total stockholders’ equity would increase by approximately $26.1 million, after deducting underwriting discounts and estimated offering expenses payable by us, and we would have 7,290,678 shares of our common stock issued and outstanding, as adjusted.

The pro forma capitalization information below is illustrative only, and our capitalization following the completion of this offering will be adjusted based on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of our initial public offering determined at pricing. You should read the following table in conjunction with the sections titled “Selected Historical Consolidated Financial Information,” “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations,” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus.

 

     As of December 31, 2018  
           Actual           Pro Forma As
Adjusted
    for Offering    
 
     (Dollars in thousands)  

Trust preferred securities:

    

Junior subordinated debentures, net(1)

   $ 11,000     $ 11,000  

Stockholders’ equity:

    

Common stock (no par value; 30,000,000 shares authorized; 6,627,358 shares issued and outstanding; and 7,200,678 shares issued and outstanding as adjusted)

     41,094       63,507  

Preferred stock (no par value; 1,000,000 shares authorized; no shares issued)

     -       -  

Retained earnings

     160,115                    160,115  

Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)

     (7,506     (7,506
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total stockholders’ equity

   $      193,703     $ 216,116  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total capitalization

   $ 204,703     $ 227,116  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Capital ratios:

    

Total stockholders’ equity to total assets

     10.41     11.48

Tangible common equity to tangible assets(2)

     10.34     11.40

Total risk-based capital to risk-weighted assets(3)

     16.55     17.99

Tier 1 risk-based capital to risk-weighted assets(3)

     15.62     17.07

Common equity tier 1 capital to risk-weighted assets(3)

     14.80     16.27

Tier 1 risk-based capital to average assets

     11.40     12.47

 

(1)

Does not include $341,000 of common securities issued to the Company by three statutory business trusts in connection with the issuance of such junior subordinated debentures.

 

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(2)

We calculate tangible common equity as total stockholders’ equity, less goodwill and other intangible assets, net of accumulated amortization, and we calculate tangible assets as total assets, less goodwill and other intangible assets, net of accumulated amortization. Tangible common equity to tangible assets is a non-GAAP financial measure, and, as we calculate tangible common equity to tangible assets, the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure is total stockholders’ equity to total assets. See our reconciliation of non-GAAP financial measures to their most directly comparable GAAP financial measures under the caption “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Non-GAAP Financial Measures.”

 

(3)

The pro forma capital ratios above assume that the proceeds of this offering are invested in 100.0% risk-weighted assets.

 

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DILUTION

If you invest in our common stock, your ownership interest will be diluted to the extent that the initial public offering price per share of our common stock exceeds the as adjusted tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately following this offering. Tangible book value is equal to our total stockholders’ equity, less goodwill and other intangible assets. As of December 31, 2018, the tangible book value of our common stock was $192.2 million, or $28.99 per share.

After giving effect to the net proceeds from the sale by us of 573,320 shares of our common stock in this offering (assuming the underwriters do not exercise the overallotment option) at an assumed initial public offering price of $44.00 per share, the midpoint of the price range on the cover of this prospectus, after deducting underwriting discounts and estimated offering expenses payable by us, the pro forma tangible book value of our common stock as of December 31, 2018 would have been approximately $214.6 million, or $29.80 per share. Therefore, this offering will result in an immediate increase of $0.81 in the tangible book value per share of our common stock of existing shareholders and an immediate dilution of $14.20 in the tangible book value per share of our common stock to investors purchasing shares in this offering, or approximately 32.3% of the assumed public offering price of $44.00 per share. Sales of shares by the selling shareholders will have no effect on the tangible book value of our common stock.

The following table illustrates the calculation of the amount of dilution per share as of December 31, 2018 that a purchaser of our common stock in this offering will incur given the assumptions above:

 

Assumed initial public offering price per share

      $ 44.00  

Tangible book value per common share as of December 31, 2018

   $ 28.99     

Increase in tangible book value per common share attributable to this offering

   $ 0.81     
  

 

 

    

As adjusted tangible book value per common share after this offering

      $ 29.80  
     

 

 

 

Dilution in tangible book value per common share to new investors

      $ 14.20  
     

 

 

 

A $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $44.00 per share would increase (decrease) our as adjusted tangible book value per share after this offering by approximately $0.07, assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, and after deducting the underwriting discounts and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

If the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares is exercised in full, the pro forma tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering would be approximately $29.94 per share, and the dilution in pro forma as adjusted tangible book value per share to investors in this offering would be approximately $14.06 per share.

 

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The following table summarizes the total consideration paid to us and the average price paid per share by existing shareholders and investors purchasing common stock in this offering. To the extent that any of our officers or directors or any promoters, or any persons affiliated with any of the foregoing, participated in a prior offering of our common stock, these individuals paid the same price as all other participants in the offering. This information is presented on an as adjusted basis as of December 31, 2018, after giving effect to our sale of 573,320 shares of common stock in this offering (assuming the underwriters do not exercise the overallotment option) at an assumed initial public offering price of $44.00 per share.

 

    Shares Purchased/Issued     Total Consideration     Average Price
Per Share
 
        Number             Percent             Amount             Percent      
    (Dollars in thousands, except per share data)        

Existing shareholders as of December 31, 2018

    6,627,358       92.0   $ 41,094 (1)      62.0   $ 6.20  

New investors in this offering

    573,320       8.0     25,226       38.0     44.00  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total

    7,200,678       100.0   $ 66,320       100.0   $ 9.21  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(1)

Represents $41.1 million in common stock.

Assuming no shares are sold to existing shareholders in this offering, sales of shares of our common stock by the selling shareholders in this offering will reduce the number of shares of common stock held by existing shareholders to 6,600,678, or approximately 91.7% of the total shares of our common stock outstanding after this offering, and will increase the number of shares held by new investors to 600,000, or approximately 8.3% of the total shares of our common stock outstanding after this offering.

After giving effect to the sale of shares in this offering by us and the selling shareholders, if the underwriters’ option to purchase additional shares is exercised in full, our existing shareholders would own approximately 90.5% and our new investors would own approximately 9.5% of the total number of shares of our common stock outstanding after this offering.

The table and the two immediately preceding paragraphs above exclude 28,000 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of outstanding stock options at a weighted average exercise price of $14.85 per share as of December 31, 2018. All such stock options have vested and are currently exercisable. To the extent that any of the foregoing options are exercised, investors participating in this offering will experience further dilution.

 

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PRICE RANGE OF OUR COMMON STOCK

Prior to this offering, our common stock has not been traded on an established public trading market and quotations for our common stock were not reported on any market. As a result, there has been no regular market for our common stock. Although our shares may have been sporadically traded in private transactions, the prices at which such transactions occurred may not necessarily reflect the price that would be paid for our common stock in an active market. As of April 3, 2019, there were approximately 514 holders of record of our common stock.

We anticipate that this offering and the listing of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market will result in a more active trading market for our common stock. However, we cannot assure you that a liquid trading market for our common stock will develop or be sustained after this offering. You may not be able to sell your shares quickly or at the market price if trading in our common stock is not active. See “Underwriting” for more information regarding our arrangements with the underwriters and the factors considered in setting the initial public offering price.

 

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS

OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

This section presents management’s perspective on our financial condition and results of operations. The following discussion and analysis should be read in conjunction with the section entitled “Selected Historical Consolidated Financial Information” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. To the extent that this discussion describes prior performance, the descriptions relate only to the periods listed, which may not be indicative of our future financial outcomes. In addition to historical information, this discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks, uncertainties, and assumptions that could cause results to differ materially from management’s expectations. Factors that could cause such differences are discussed in the sections titled “Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and “Risk Factors.” We assume no obligation to update any of these forward-looking statements.

General

The following discussion and analysis presents our financial condition and results of operations on a consolidated basis. However, we conduct all of our material business operations through our wholly owned bank subsidiary, Red River Bank, and the discussion and analysis that follows primarily relates to activities conducted at the bank level.

Our principal business is lending to and accepting deposits from businesses, professionals, individuals, and public entities in our operating markets. We generate the majority of our revenue from interest earned on loans and investments, loan and deposit fees and service charges, and fees relating to the sale of mortgage loans and investment advisory services. We incur interest expense on deposits and other borrowed funds, as well as operating expense, such as salaries and employee benefits and occupancy expenses.

We intend for this discussion and analysis to provide the reader with information that will assist in understanding our business, results of operations, financial condition and financial statements, the changes in certain key items in our financial statements from period to period, and the primary factors that accounted for those changes.

Performance Summary for the Years Ended December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016

2018 vs 2017

In 2018, our accomplishments included improving our profitability, returns on assets and equity, net interest margin, and asset quality; growing our balance sheet; paying our first cash dividend; executing a 2-for-1 stock split; expanding our banking center locations; and celebrating 20 years since the Company was founded. As a result of the Company’s financial performance and capital levels, we paid our first cash dividend of $0.15 per share (after giving effect for the 2018 2-for-1 stock split) in the second quarter of 2018. In early 2018, we closed the Lake Charles LPO in the Southwest Louisiana market and simultaneously opened a new business-focused banking center. In November 2018, the Bank purchased a property and an existing branch building in Covington, Louisiana (St. Tammany Parish), for future banking center expansion.

The Company achieved record net income of $23.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, which was $9.1 million, or 64.9%, higher than the $14.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The increase in net income was primarily due to increased net interest income and the benefit of a lower federal income tax rate in 2018. As a result of higher income for the year ended December 31, 2018, diluted earnings per share increased by $1.27, or 59.3%, to $3.41 from $2.14 for the year ended December 31, 2017. Net interest income increased by $7.4 million, or 14.3%, to $59.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2018 from $51.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. Net interest income improved as a result of an increase in

 

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the net interest margin, on a fully tax-equivalent basis, to 3.44% for the year ended December 31, 2018 from 3.20% for 2017, combined with an $80.4 million, or 4.9%, increase in average interest-earning assets between 2018 and 2017. The Tax Reform Act, effective January 1, 2018, significantly lowered the U.S. corporate tax rate from a maximum overall rate of 35.0% to a 21.0% rate. The Company’s 2018 effective income tax rate was 18.7%. Asset quality trends were positive in 2018, as net charge-offs totaled only 0.03% for the year ended December 31, 2018, and the nonperforming assets to assets ratio was only 0.38% at year end 2018. Net charge-offs totaled 0.10% for the year ended December 31, 2017, and the nonperforming assets to assets ratio was 0.60% at year end 2017.

In December 2017, due to the Tax Reform Act, we revalued our deferred tax assets and liabilities and recorded an additional, one-time $2.2 million federal income tax expense. Net income and diluted earnings per share for the year ended December 31, 2017, adjusted for the additional federal income tax expense resulting from the adoption of the Tax Reform Act, were $16.2 million and $2.48, respectively. The following table presents our results of operations, and certain other financial metrics, as reported in accordance with GAAP and adjusted for the 2018 2-for-1 stock split, for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016. Also, the results of operations and financial metrics for the year ended December 31, 2017 have been adjusted for the additional federal income tax expense resulting from the adoption of the Tax Reform Act.

 

    For the Years Ended December 31,  
    2018     2017     2016  
    GAAP
Actual
    GAAP
Actual:
Including
$2.2 million
tax

expense
    Non-GAAP
Adjusted:
Excluding
$2.2 million
tax

Expense
    GAAP
Actual
 
    (Dollars in thousands, except per share data)  

Net income

  $ 23,056     $ 13,985     $ 16,215     $ 15,102  

Earnings per common share, diluted

  $ 3.41     $ 2.14     $ 2.48     $ 2.35  

Return on average assets

    1.29     0.82     0.95     0.95

Return on average equity

    12.46     8.45     9.80     10.09

Assets as of December 31, 2018 were $1.86 billion, a $136.3 million, or 7.9%, increase from $1.72 billion as of December 31, 2017. In 2018, loans and deposits had steady, organic growth with loans increasing 6.5% and deposits growing 7.8%, resulting in an 80.9% loan to deposit ratio as of December 31, 2018. Stockholders’ equity increased $15.6 million to $193.7 million, as a result of $23.1 million of 2018 net income, partially offset by $4.6 million in stock buybacks and $1.0 million in cash dividends.

2017 vs 2016

In 2017, our accomplishments included growing our balance sheet, completing a private placement stock offering, entering the Southwest Louisiana market, expanding our banking center network, and investing in digital banking channels. In the third quarter of 2017, we completed a private placement offering of our common stock, generating gross proceeds of $12.1 million. In this offering, we received total subscriptions to purchase approximately $21.7 million of our common stock, resulting in a $9.6 million oversubscription amount that was returned to prospective investors. The offering enabled us to expand our shareholder base in key Louisiana markets. We continued the execution of our organic growth strategy by opening an LPO in Lake Charles, Louisiana, and a new banking center in the Northwest Louisiana market. We also continued investing in digital banking channels to provide our customers with the option of having access to both electronic banking systems and knowledgeable, experienced bankers.

Net income for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $14.0 million, a decrease of $1.1 million, or 7.4%, from $15.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The decrease in net income was primarily due to the impact of the Tax Reform Act, which became law on December 22, 2017. Higher income tax expense in

 

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2017 was partially offset by increased net interest income. Diluted earnings per share for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $2.14, a decrease of $0.21 from $2.35 for the year ended December 31, 2016. The decrease in diluted earnings per share over this period was due to the decrease in net income and a 1.7% increase in average shares outstanding due from the stock offering.

Assets at December 31, 2017 were $1.72 billion, a $79.4 million, or 4.8%, increase from $1.64 billion at December 31, 2016. In 2017, loans held for investment increased by $101.0 million, or 8.8%, to $1.25 billion at December 31, 2017. The loan increase was due to organic loan growth, driven in part by an increase in lending officers and our entry into the Southwest Louisiana market. Deposits increased $53.1 million, or 3.6%, to $1.53 billion at December 31, 2017, compared to $1.47 billion at December 31, 2016, with noninterest-bearing deposits representing $29.1 million of the total increase. Stockholders’ equity increased $26.3 million to $178.1 million, primarily as a result of 2017 net income and gross offering proceeds of $12.1 million from the private placement offering completed in the third quarter of 2017.

Results of Operations for the Years Ended December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016

Net Interest Income

Our operating results depend primarily on our net interest income. Fluctuations in market interest rates impact the yield on interest-earning assets and the rate paid on interest-bearing liabilities. Changes in the amount and type of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities also impact our net interest income. To evaluate net interest income, we measure and monitor: (1) yields on loans and other interest-earning assets; (2) the costs of deposits and other funding sources; (3) net interest spread; and (4) net interest margin. Since noninterest-bearing sources of funds, such as noninterest-bearing deposits and stockholders’ equity, also fund interest-earning assets, net interest margin includes the benefit of these noninterest-bearing funding sources.

2018 vs 2017

Net interest income for the year ended December 31, 2018 was $59.2 million compared to $51.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, an increase of $7.4 million, or 14.3%. The increase in net interest income was due to an $8.5 million, or 14.5%, increase in interest and dividend income slightly offset by a $1.1 million, or 16.6%, increase in interest expense. The higher net interest income was attributable to an improved asset mix with an increase in the loan portfolio and a decrease in lower yielding asset categories, resulting in an improved net interest margin.

When comparing average balances for 2018 to 2017, loans increased $127.6 million, or 10.8%, securities decreased $32.5 million, or 8.9%, noninterest-bearing deposits increased $38.2 million, or 7.5%, and interest-bearing deposits increased $24.5 million, or 2.4%. The increase in average loans outstanding was due to organic growth in the Northwest, Southeast, and Southwest Louisiana markets mainly relating to commercial and residential real estate loans. The increase in average deposits resulted from new account openings in all markets and by diversifying our public entity customer base with the addition of new public entity relationships and accounts.

Our net interest margin, on a fully tax-equivalent basis, was 3.44% for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to 3.20% for the same period in 2017. The yield on loans increased 20 basis points to 4.42% for the year ended December 31, 2018 from 4.22% for the year ended December 31, 2017. The loan yield improved in the higher interest rate environment by obtaining higher rates on new loans than in previous years, combined with the benefit of a higher interest rate environment on variable rate loans. During 2018, the additional federal funds rate increases had a more pronounced effect on our variable rate loan portfolio than in prior years. For many variable rate loans, the increase can be attributed to the repriced loan rate surpassing the loan floor rate. Our loan beta (defined as the change in our average loan yield as a percentage of the change in the target federal funds rate) was approximately 31.0% for 2018 compared to 6.0% for 2017. In 2018, the average yield on taxable

 

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securities increased 23 basis points mainly due to the higher interest rate environment and new securities purchased having higher yields than the existing portfolio. The average yield on nontaxable securities decreased 15 basis points due to the sales, calls, and maturities of higher yielding nontaxable investment securities in 2018. On the liability side, due to the higher interest rate environment and significant increased competition for deposit accounts, we increased rates on interest-bearing transaction deposits and offered selected time deposit rate specials. This resulted in the cost of interest-bearing deposits increasing eight basis points to 0.69% for 2018 from 0.61% for 2017 and the total cost of deposits increasing five basis points to 0.45% for 2018 from 0.40% for 2017. We generated a deposit beta (defined as the change in our average cost of deposits as a percentage of the change in the target federal funds rate) of approximately 12.0% for 2018 compared to (2.0%) for 2017. Also, the rate paid on our junior subordinated debentures increased by 94 basis points to 4.92% for the year ended December 31, 2018 as a result of the higher interest rate environment.

2017 vs 2016

Net interest income for the year ended December 31, 2017 was $51.8 million compared to $47.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2016, an increase of $4.0 million, or 8.4%. The increase in net interest income was due to a $4.1 million, or 7.6%, increase in interest income slightly offset by a $130,000, or 2.0%, increase in interest expense. The higher net interest income was primarily attributable to increasing loan, security, and deposit balances, and maintaining a consistent net interest margin.

When comparing average balances for 2017 to 2016, loans increased $92.9 million, or 8.5%, securities increased $53.1 million, or 16.9%, noninterest-bearing deposits increased $73.3 million, or 16.9%, and interest-bearing deposits increased $25.0 million, or 2.5%. The increase in average loans outstanding was mainly due to organic growth in our Southeast and Northwest Louisiana markets. The increase in average deposits resulted from existing customers maintaining higher balances, significant new account openings in all markets, and the impact of strategic positioning within our public entity line of business.

Our net interest margin, on a fully tax-equivalent basis, was 3.20% for the year ended December 31, 2017 compared to 3.21% for the same period in 2016. The continued aggressive competition for quality loans coupled with a 17.5% variable rate portfolio muted the impact of the three 0.25% federal funds rate increases during 2017. In 2017, the average nominal yield on securities decreased 16 basis points due to the sales of some higher-yielding, tax-free municipal securities. On the liability side, the strength of our core deposit base enabled us to hold funding costs stable, while simultaneously growing deposit balances, all in spite of the rise in short-term market rates. Comparing 2017 to 2016, we increased average total deposit balances by $98.3 million while maintaining the cost of interest-bearing deposits consistent at 0.61% and decreasing the total cost of deposits from 0.42% to 0.40%.

 

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The following table presents average balance sheet information, interest income, interest expense, and the corresponding average yields earned and rates paid for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016. Nonaccrual loans are included in the following table as loans carrying a zero yield.

 

    For the Years Ended December 31,  
    2018     2017     2016  
    Average
Balance
Outstanding
    Interest
Earned/
Interest
Paid
    Average
Yield/
Rate
    Average
Balance
Outstanding
    Interest
Earned/
Interest
Paid
    Average
Yield/
Rate
    Average
Balance
Outstanding
    Interest
Earned/
Interest
Paid
    Average
Yield/
Rate
 
    (Dollars in thousands)  

Assets

                 

Interest-earning assets:

                 

Loans(1)

      $     1,312,078       $     58,747       4.42   $ 1,184,523     $     50,608       4.22   $ 1,091,605     $     47,213       4.26

Securities — taxable

    277,337       5,624       2.03     297,960       5,352       1.80     220,462       3,938       1.79

Securities — nontaxable

    57,776       1,327       2.30     69,702       1,711       2.45     94,130       2,615       2.78

Interest-bearing balances due from banks

    58,558       1,154       1.97     73,183       706       0.96     94,324       467       0.49

Nonmarketable equity securities

    1,286       18       1.36     1,253       14       1.13     1,209       11       0.90

Investment in trusts

    341       16       4.83     341       14       4.16     341       12       3.47
 

 

 

   

 

 

     

 

 

   

 

 

     

 

 

   

 

 

   

Total interest-earning assets

    1,707,376     $ 66,886       3.86     1,626,962     $ 58,405       3.55     1,502,071     $ 54,256       3.54
   

 

 

       

 

 

       

 

 

   

Allowance for loan losses

    (11,713         (11,101         (10,001    

Noninterest earning assets

    89,155           91,540           93,387      
 

 

 

       

 

 

       

 

 

     

Total assets

  $ 1,784,818         $ 1,707,401         $ 1,585,457      
 

 

 

       

 

 

       

 

 

     

Liabilities and Stockholders’ Equity

                 

Interest-bearing liabilities:

                 

Interest-bearing transaction deposits

  $ 708,818     $ 2,735       0.39   $ 666,367     $ 1,919       0.29   $ 612,512     $ 1,631       0.27

Time deposits

    320,699       4,349       1.36     338,672       4,165       1.23     367,567       4,379       1.19
 

 

 

   

 

 

     

 

 

   

 

 

     

 

 

   

 

 

   

Total interest-bearing deposits

    1,029,517       7,084       0.69     1,005,039       6,084       0.61     980,079       6,010       0.61

Junior subordinated debentures

    11,341       558       4.92     11,341       452       3.98     11,341       394       3.47

Other borrowings

    191       7       3.66     899       24       2.66     578       26       4.50
 

 

 

   

 

 

     

 

 

   

 

 

     

 

 

   

 

 

   

Total interest-bearing liabilities

  $ 1,041,049     $ 7,649       0.73   $ 1,017,279     $ 6,560       0.64     991,998     $ 6,430       0.64
   

 

 

       

 

 

       

 

 

   

Noninterest-bearing liabilities:

                 

Noninterest-bearing deposits

    545,547           507,367           434,062      

Accrued interest and other liabilities

    13,124           17,307           9,730      
 

 

 

       

 

 

       

 

 

     

Total noninterest-bearing liabilities:

    558,671           524,674           443,792      

Stockholders’ equity

    185,098           165,448           149,667      
 

 

 

       

 

 

       

 

 

     

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

  $ 1,784,818         $ 1,707,401         $ 1,585,457      
 

 

 

       

 

 

       

 

 

     

Net interest income

    $ 59,237         $ 51,845         $ 47,826    
   

 

 

       

 

 

       

 

 

   

Net interest spread(2)

        3.13         2.91         2.90

Net interest margin(3)

        3.42         3.14         3.11

Net interest margin FTE(4)

        3.44         3.20         3.21

Cost of deposits

        0.45         0.40         0.42

Cost of funds

        0.45         0.40         0.43

 

(1)

Includes average outstanding balances of loans held for sale of $2.9 million, $3.3 million and $4.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively.

 

(2)

Net interest spread is the average yield on interest-earning assets minus the average rate on interest-bearing liabilities.

 

(3)

Net interest margin is net interest income divided by average interest-earning assets.

 

(4)

In order to present pretax resulting yield on tax-exempt investments comparable to those on taxable investments, a fully tax-equivalent “FTE” adjustment (a non-GAAP measure) has been computed.

Rate/Volume Analysis

Increases and decreases in interest income and interest expense result from changes in average balances (volume) of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities, as well as changes in average interest rates.

 

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The following table presents the dollar amount of changes in interest income and interest expense for major components of interest-earning assets and interest-bearing liabilities. It distinguishes between the changes related to outstanding balances and those due to changes in interest rates. The change in interest attributable to rate has been determined by applying the change in rate between periods to average balances outstanding in the earlier period. The change in interest due to volume has been determined by applying the rate from the earlier period to the change in average balances outstanding between periods. For purposes of this table, changes attributable to both rate and volume that cannot be segregated have been allocated to rate.

 

    For the Years Ended December 31,
2018 vs. 2017
    For the Years Ended December 31,
2017 vs. 2016
 
    Increase (Decrease)
Due to Change in
    Total
Increase
(Decrease)
    Increase (Decrease)
Due to Change in
    Total
Increase
 
    Volume     Rate     Volume     Rate     (Decrease)  
    (Dollars in thousands)  

Interest income:

           

Loans

  $ 5,391     $ 2,748     $ 8,139     $ 3,765     $ (370   $ 3,395  

Securities — taxable

    (324     596       272       1,351       63       1,414  

Securities — nontaxable

    (314     (70     (384     (646     (258     (904

Interest-bearing balances due from banks

    (118     566       448       (107     346       239  

Nonmarketable equity securities

    -       4       4       -       3       3  

Investment in trusts

    -       2       2       -       2       2  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total interest income

  $ 4,635     $ 3,846     $ 8,481     $ 4,363     $ (214   $ 4,149  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Interest expense:

           

Interest-bearing transaction deposits

  $ 171     $ 645     $ 816     $ 143     $ 145     $ 288  

Time deposits

    (256     440       184       (270     56       (214
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total interest-bearing deposits

    (85     1,085       1,000       (127     201       74  

Junior subordinated debentures

    -       106       106       -       58       58  

Other borrowings

    (18     1       (17     (13     11       (2
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total interest expense

  $ (103   $ 1,192     $ 1,089     $ (140   $ 270     $ 130  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Increase (decrease) in net interest income

  $ 4,738     $ 2,654     $ 7,392     $ 4,503     $ (484   $ 4,019  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Provision for Loan Losses

The provision for loan losses is a charge to income necessary to maintain the allowance for loan losses at a level considered appropriate by management. Factors impacting the provision include loan portfolio growth, changes in the quality and composition of the loan portfolio, the level of nonperforming loans, delinquency and charge-off trends, and current economic conditions. As of December 31, 2018, the allowance for loan losses totaled $12.5 million, or 0.94% of loans held for investment compared to $10.9 million as of December 31, 2017, or 0.87% of loans held for investment. The provision expense for the year ended December 31, 2018 was $2.0 million, an increase of $435,000 from $1.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. In 2017, the provision expense decreased $103,000 from $1.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2016.

Noninterest Income

Our primary sources of recurring noninterest income are service charges on deposit accounts, debit card fees, fees related to the sale of mortgage loans, brokerage income from investment advisory services, and other loan and deposit fees. For the year ended December 31, 2018, noninterest income totaled $14.5 million, an increase of $1.8 million compared to $12.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. For the year ended December 31, 2017, noninterest income decreased $188,000 from $12.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The decrease in 2017 was primarily attributable to a lower level of nonrecurring gains from sales of securities, as well as lower mortgage income. We experienced lower mortgage income in 2017 due to a higher

 

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interest rate environment and a decline in refinancing activity. In 2018 and 2017, noninterest income in our three main categories (service charges on deposit accounts, debit card income, and other loan and deposit income) increased due to higher account and transaction volumes and activity. The table below presents, for the periods indicated, the major categories of noninterest income:

 

     For the Years
Ended

December 31,
     Increase
(Decrease)
    For the Years
Ended

December 31,
     Increase
(Decrease)
 
 
     2018      2017      2018 v. 2017     2017      2016      2017 v. 2016  
     (Dollars in thousands)  

Noninterest income:

                    

Service charges on deposit accounts

   $ 4,582      $ 4,263      $ 319       7.5   $ 4,263      $ 3,994      $ 269       6.7

Debit card income, net

     2,986        2,390        596       24.9     2,390        2,281        109       4.8

Mortgage loan income

     2,107        1,966        141       7.2     1,966        2,422        (456     (18.8 %) 

Brokerage income

     1,944        1,577        367       23.3     1,577        1,562        15       1.0

Loan and deposit income

     1,359        1,121        238       21.2     1,121        967        154       15.9

Bank-owned life insurance

     732        571        161       28.2     571        611        (40     (6.5 %) 

Gain on sale of investments

     32        494        (462     (93.5 %)      494        1,035        (541     (52.3 %) 

Other

     789        332        457       137.7     332        30        302       1,006.7
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

     

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

Total noninterest income

   $ 14,531      $ 12,714      $ 1,817       14.3   $ 12,714      $ 12,902      $ (188     (1.5 %) 
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

     

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

Service Charges on Deposit Accounts.  We earn fees from our customers for deposit-related services. Service charges on deposit accounts were $4.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, an increase of $319,000 from the year ended December 31, 2017. Service charges also increased $269,000 in 2017 compared to 2016. These increases were mainly due to new deposit accounts being opened throughout our banking center network each year.

Debit Card Income, Net.  We earn interchange income related to our customers’ debit card usage which is offset by the costs of managing our debit card portfolio and processing debit card transactions. This income is driven by both the number of debit cards outstanding and the number of debit card transactions. In 2018, we adopted Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which required a change in the reporting of debit card expense, whereby debit card expense was reclassified from operating expense to debit card income in noninterest income. This change has been reflected in debit card income, net for 2018, 2017, and 2016.

Debit card income was $3.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, as compared to $2.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. For 2018, debit card income increased by $596,000 due to the issuance of additional cards, higher transaction volumes, a full year of revenue from our 2017 debit card branding agreement, and lower card issuance expense in connection with the completion of a mass debit card reissuance project.

For the year ended December 31, 2017, debit card income was $2.4 million compared to $2.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The $109,000 increase in 2017 debit card income was the result of new deposit accounts opening resulting in new card issuance, higher transaction volume, improved interchange pricing with our card processor, and revenue from a new 2017 debit card branding agreement. These benefits were partially offset by a full year of expense relating to the mass reissuance of chip enabled debit cards which began in 2016.

Mortgage Loan Income.  We originate residential mortgage loans that are sold on the secondary market, generally on a servicing-released basis. For the year ended December 31, 2018, we originated $99.1 million of mortgage loans and generated $2.1 million of revenue on the sale of these loans. For the year ended December 31, 2017, we originated $96.8 million of mortgage loans and generated $2.0 million of revenue on sale. The 7.2% increase in mortgage loan income was due to a larger number and higher dollar volume of

 

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mortgage loans closed in 2018 as compared to 2017. Mortgage loan income decreased 18.8% in 2017 as compared to 2016. The 2017 decrease in mortgage loan income was primarily attributable to a decrease in transaction volume due to rising rates and an overall downturn in the mortgage industry.

Brokerage Income.  We offer a full range of investment products and services through Red River Bank’s investment group. Brokerage income comes from the fees generated from the sale and management of investment products, services, and assets under management. For the year ended December 31, 2018, the investment group had $1.9 million of brokerage income, which was 23.3% higher than brokerage income for the year ended December 31, 2017. Assets under management increased 16.6% to $492.6 million at December 31, 2018 from $422.6 million at December 31, 2017 due to the addition of new brokerage clients as well as additional funds invested by existing clients. We generated $1.6 million of brokerage income for both the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016. Assets under management increased by $81.2 million, or 23.8%, to $422.6 million at December 31, 2017 as compared to $341.4 million at December 31, 2016. In 2017, assets under management increased, yet brokerage income remained consistent due to our transition to a more advisory, fee-based business structure from a transactional, commission-based model. The fee-based structure is lower yielding up front, but is expected to result in more consistent, predictable earnings going forward.

Operating Expense

Generally, operating expense is composed of all employee expenses and costs associated with operating our facilities, obtaining and retaining customer relationships, and providing services. Operating expense also includes occupancy expenses, property and equipment depreciation, professional and regulatory fees, data processing expenses, and business development expenses.

For the year ended December 31, 2018, operating expense totaled $43.4 million, an increase of $2.9 million, or 7.3%, compared to $40.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. For the year ended December 31, 2017, operating expense increased by $2.1 million, or 5.5%, compared to $38.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. The following table presents, for the periods indicated, the major categories of operating expense:

 

     For the Years Ended
December 31,
     Increase
(Decrease)
    For the Years Ended
December 31,
     Increase
(Decrease)
 
 
     2018      2017      2018 v. 2017     2017      2016      2017 v. 2016  
     (Dollars in thousands)  

Personnel expenses

   $ 26,094      $ 23,742      $ 2,352       9.9   $ 23,742      $ 22,751      $ 991       4.4

Nonstaff expenses:

                    

Occupancy and equipment expenses

     4,500        4,241        259       6.1     4,241        4,086        155       3.8

Technology expenses

     2,070        1,904        166       8.7     1,904        1,661        243       14.6

Business development expenses

     1,889        1,936        (47     (2.4 %)      1,936        1,880        56       3.0

Data processing expense

     1,386        1,542        (156     (10.1 %)      1,542        1,453        89       6.1

Other taxes

     1,327        1,328        (1     (0.1 %)      1,328        1,137        191       16.8

Loan and deposit expenses

     852        1,060        (208     (19.6 %)      1,060        737        323       43.8

Legal and professional expenses

     1,422        1,081        341       31.5     1,081        973        108       11.1

Other

     3,882        3,639        243       6.7     3,639        3,683        (44     (1.2 %) 
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

     

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

Total operating expense

   $ 43,422      $ 40,473      $ 2,949       7.3   $ 40,473      $ 38,361      $ 2,112       5.5
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

     

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

   

Personnel Expenses.  Personnel salaries and benefits are the largest component of operating expense and include payroll expense, incentive compensation, benefit plans, health insurance, and payroll taxes.

Personnel expenses were $26.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, an increase of $2.4 million compared to $23.7 million for the year 2017. As of December 31, 2018 and 2017, we had 320 and 305 full-time equivalent employees, respectively, an increase of 15 full-time equivalent employees in 2018. The 2018 personnel expense increase was due primarily to the increase in full-time equivalent employees and their related benefit and payroll tax expenses.

 

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Personnel expenses were $23.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, an increase of $991,000 compared to $22.8 million for the year 2016. As of December 31, 2017 and 2016, we had 305 and 295 full-time equivalent employees, respectively. The 2017 personnel expense increase was due primarily to staffing needed to open a new banking center in our Northwest Louisiana market and an LPO in our Southwest Louisiana market, as well as increased benefit plan expenses and payroll taxes, partially offset by lower insurance benefit expense.

Occupancy and Equipment Expenses.  Occupancy and equipment expenses were $4.5 million and $4.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The largest component of occupancy expense was fixed asset depreciation, which totaled $1.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2018. The increase of $259,000 in occupancy and equipment expenses for 2018 compared to 2017 was due to incurring a full year of expenses related to the 2017 purchase and opening of a new banking center in the Northwest Louisiana market and new expenses in the Southwest Louisiana market related to the opening of a new banking center and the closing of the LPO, both in 2018.

Occupancy and equipment expenses were $4.2 million and $4.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Depreciation expense totaled $1.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016. The increase of $155,000 in occupancy and equipment expenses for 2017 compared to 2016 was due to opening our new banking center in the Northwest Louisiana market, incurring a full year of expenses related to a new banking center opened in our Southeast Louisiana market in 2016, and a decrease in rental income as a result of the sale of a property located in our Southeast Louisiana market.

Technology Expenses.  Technology expenses were $2.1 million, $1.9 million and $1.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016, respectively. The $166,000 increase in 2018 was a result of the banking center network expansion, cybersecurity and information technology infrastructure enhancements, and other new hardware and software systems. The $243,000 increase in 2017 was due to investments in market expansion, loan origination and analysis platforms, cybersecurity services, and technology infrastructure.

Business Development Expenses.  Business development expenses include advertising, marketing, and community reinvestment expenses. Business development expenses have been consistent at $1.9 million for each of the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016.

Data Processing Expense.  Red River Bank uses a data processing center for bank operations and data processing functions, which is owned by numerous banks. Data processing expenses are related to processing and maintaining banking products and core banking systems associated with loan and deposit relationships. Data processing expense decreased by $156,000 for the year ended December 31, 2018 to $1.4 million from $1.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The 2018 decrease was mainly due to a one-time, nonrecurring $320,000 refund received from our data processing center as a result of their efficient management of data processing costs, which was partially offset by increasing account volumes. Data processing expense was $1.5 million for each of the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016.

Other Taxes.  The largest component of other taxes is the State of Louisiana bank stock tax. The State of Louisiana does not assess income tax on banks located in Louisiana; rather, Louisiana banks pay a tax to their local cities and parishes based on their deposit and equity balances and the prior year’s net income. Other taxes were $1.3 million, $1.3 million, and $1.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, and 2016, respectively. Bank stock tax expense was consistent between 2018 and 2017 since the additional stock tax expense related to higher deposit account balances was offset by lower stock tax expense due to lower net income between the applicable tax years. Comparing 2017 to 2016, bank stock tax expense increased 16.8% due to having both higher deposit account balances and higher net income between the applicable tax years.

Income Tax Expense

The amount of income tax expense is influenced by the amounts of our pre-tax income, tax-exempt income, and other nondeductible expenses. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are reflected at currently enacted

 

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income tax rates in effect for the period in which the deferred tax assets and liabilities are expected to be realized or settled. As changes in tax laws or rates are enacted, deferred tax assets and liabilities are adjusted through the provision for income taxes.

Our effective income tax rates have differed from the U.S. statutory rate due to the effect of tax-exempt income from loans, securities and life insurance policies, and the income tax effects associated with stock-based compensation.

For the year ended December 31, 2018, we had $5.3 million of income tax expense, which was $3.2 million, or 38.0%, lower than $8.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The Company’s 2018 effective income tax rate was 18.7% compared to 38.0% for the year ended December 31, 2017. The decrease in the 2018 income tax expense and the effective tax rate was a result of 2017 including a $2.2 million additional, one-time, income tax expense for the revaluation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities due to the enactment of the Tax Reform Act, combined with the reduction of the U.S. corporate income tax rate to 21.0% for the year ended December 31, 2018 from 35.0% for the year ended December 31, 2017.

For the year ended December 31, 2017, we recognized income tax expense of $8.5 million compared to $5.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. Our effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2017 was 38.0% compared to 27.1% for the year ended December 31, 2016. The increase in income tax expense and the effective tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2017 was primarily due to an additional $2.2 million income tax expense in 2017 resulting from the Tax Reform Act. The revaluation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities resulted in an additional income tax expense of $2.2 million in 2017. Without the impact of the Tax Reform Act, income tax expense for the year ended December 31, 2017 would have been $6.3 million, an increase of 12.6% over the year ended December 31, 2016.

Financial Condition

General

As of December 31, 2018, total assets were $1.86 billion which was $136.3 million, or 7.9%, higher than total assets of $1.72 billion as of December 31, 2017. Within total assets, interest-bearing deposits in other banks increased by $88.0 million, loans held for investment increased by $80.8 million, and total investment securities decreased by $42.6 million in 2018. The balance sheet growth was funded by a $119.6 million increase in deposits in 2018.

Total assets increased by $79.4 million, or 4.8%, to $1.72 billion as of December 31, 2017, from $1.64 billion as of December 31, 2016. The increase in assets was primarily attributable to growth in total loans held for investment of $101.0 million, partially offset by a $60.8 million decrease in short-term liquid assets in 2017. The balance sheet growth was funded, in part, by a $53.1 million increase in deposits and an increase in equity in 2017.

Securities

Our securities portfolio is the second largest component of earning assets and provides a significant source of revenue. As of December 31, 2018, our securities portfolio was 16.8% of total assets. It is designed primarily to provide and maintain liquidity, generate a favorable return on investments without incurring unnecessary interest rate and credit risk, and complement our lending activities. Securities are classified as either available-for-sale or held-to-maturity within the portfolio. We invest in various types of liquid assets that are permissible under governing regulations, which include U.S. Treasury obligations, U.S. government agency obligations, certificates of deposit of insured domestic banks, mortgage-backed and mortgage-related securities, corporate notes having an investment rating of A or better, municipal bonds, and certain equity securities. We do not purchase noninvestment grade bonds or stripped mortgage-backed securities for the portfolio.

 

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Total securities were $311.7 million as of December 31, 2018, a decrease of $42.6 million, or 12.0%, from $354.3 million as of December 31, 2017. Tax-exempt municipal securities represented 17.8% of our securities portfolio as of December 31, 2018. Investment activity during 2018 included $20.7 million of securities purchased during the year, offset by $5.3 million in sales and $53.9 million in maturities, prepayments, and calls. In addition, the portfolio experienced expected amortization of investment premiums and accretion of discounts during the year. The resulting net decrease in investments after this activity was primarily due to reinvesting the cash flows from the securities portfolio into the loan portfolio, as strong loan demand continued in 2018.

As of December 31, 2018, we held $307.9 million of available-for-sale securities, $0.0 held-to-maturity securities, and $3.8 million in equity securities. The December 31, 2017 held-to-maturity securities were reclassified to available-for-sale in the fourth quarter of 2018, thus allowing these securities to be available for liquidity purposes, if needed. At the time of the reclassification, the amortized cost of these securities was $7.7 million.

The $3.8 million in equity securities as of December 31, 2018 is an investment in the CRA Qualified Investment Fund which is managed by Community Capital Management, Inc. We invested in the CRA Qualified Investment Fund as part of our strategy to meet our obligations set forth by the Community Reinvestment Act, which encourages financial institutions to help meet the credit needs of their entire market area, including low and moderate income neighborhoods, consistent with safe and sound banking principles. Through this fund, mortgage-backed securities are purchased according to our allocations, with their underlying collateral located in our market areas, which strengthens our efforts in meeting our CRA obligations.

The securities portfolio yield was 2.07% for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared to 1.92% for the year ended December 31, 2017. The increase in yield for 2018, compared to 2017, was primarily due to the purchase of $20.7 million of securities at significantly higher yields than the existing portfolio yield at the time of the purchases. Another contributing factor to the increase in yield was the slowing of prepayment speeds of our amortizing securities that were owned at a premium. This had the effect of extending the average lives of these amortizing securities, lowering the amortization expense monthly, and thus increasing their yield. Additionally, we received prepayment penalties in the amount of $27,000, related to specific mortgage-backed securities, and this improved yield as well.

The contractual maturity of mortgage-backed securities and collateralized mortgage obligations is not a reliable indicator of their expected lives because borrowers have the right to prepay their obligations at any time. Mortgage-backed securities and collateralized mortgage obligations are typically issued with stated principal amounts and are backed by pools of mortgage loans and other loans with varying maturities. The term of the underlying mortgages and loans may vary significantly due to the ability of a borrower to prepay. Monthly pay downs on mortgage-backed securities may cause the average lives of the securities to be much different than the stated contractual maturity. During a period of rising interest rates, fixed rate mortgage-backed securities are not likely to experience heavy prepayments of principal, and, consequently, the average lives of these securities are typically lengthened. If interest rates begin to fall, prepayments may increase, thereby shortening the estimated average lives of these securities. As of December 31, 2018, the average life of our securities portfolio was 4.1 years with an estimated effective duration of 3.2 years.

The carrying values of our securities classified as available-for-sale are adjusted for unrealized gain or loss, and any unrealized gain or loss is reported on an after-tax basis as a component of other comprehensive income in stockholders’ equity, while securities classified as held-to-maturity are carried at amortized cost. Equity securities, which includes a mutual fund, are carried at fair value on the balance sheet with periodic changes in value recorded through the income statement. As of December 31, 2018, the net unrealized loss of the available-for-sale securities portfolio was $9.5 million, or 3.0% of the total carrying value of the portfolio, as compared to a net unrealized loss of $6.8 million, or 1.9% of the total carrying value of the portfolio, as of December 31, 2017.

 

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The fair value of our equity securities was $3.8 million with recognized losses of $85,000 for the year ended December 31, 2018. Prior to the 2018 adoption of ASU No. 2016-01, Financial Instruments — Overall (Subtopic 825-10), mutual fund securities were included in available-for-sale securities.

The following tables summarize the amortized cost and estimated fair value of our securities by type as of the dates indicated. As of December 31, 2018, other than securities issued by U.S. government agencies or government sponsored enterprises, our securities portfolio did not contain securities of any one issuer with an aggregate book value in excess of 10.0% of our stockholders’ equity.

 

    December 31, 2018  
      Amortized  
Cost
    Gross
  Unrealized  
Gains
    Gross
  Unrealized  
Losses
      Fair Value    
    (Dollars in thousands)  

Available-for-sale:

       

Mortgage-backed securities

    $     221,799        $ 11        $     (7,122     $ 214,688   

U.S. agency securities

    23,170              (261     22,915   

U.S. treasury securities

    1,994              -       1,999   

Municipal bonds

    70,416        94        (2,235     68,275   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total

    $ 317,379        $             116        $     (9,618     $     307,877   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Held-to-maturity:

       

Municipal bonds

    $       $       $ -       $  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

    December 31, 2017  
      Amortized  
Cost
    Gross
  Unrealized  
Gains
    Gross
  Unrealized  
Losses
      Fair Value    
    (Dollars in thousands)  

Available-for-sale:

       

Mortgage-backed securities

    $     240,374        $ 21        $     (4,492     $ 235,903   

U.S. agency securities

    40,213        13        (713     39,513   

Municipal bonds

    67,573        107        (1,658     66,022   

Mutual fund securities

    4,000              (94     3,906   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total

    $ 352,160        $             141        $     (6,957     $     345,344   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Held-to-maturity:

       

Municipal bonds

    $ 8,991        $ 232        $ -       $ 9,223   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

    December 31, 2016  
      Amortized  
Cost
    Gross
  Unrealized  
Gains
    Gross
  Unrealized  
Losses
      Fair Value    
    (Dollars in thousands)  

Available-for-sale:

       

Mortgage-backed securities

    $     170,088        $ 407        $ (3,820     $ 166,675   

U.S. agency securities

    31,642              (632     31,011   

Municipal bonds

    105,875        803        (3,504     103,174   

Mutual fund securities

    4,000              (94     3,906   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total

    $ 311,605        $         1,211        $     (8,050     $     304,766   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Held-to-maturity:

       

Municipal bonds

    $ 10,193        $ 458        $ -       $ 10,651   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

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The following table shows the fair value of available-for-sale securities which mature during each of the periods indicated. The contractual maturity of a mortgage-backed security is the date at which the last underlying mortgage matures. The yields shown in the table indicate tax-equivalent projected book yields as of December 31, 2018.

 

     Amounts as of December 31, 2018 which mature  
     Within One
Year
     After One Year
but
Within Five Years
     After Five Years
but
Within Ten Years
     After Ten
Years
     Total  
     Amount      Yield      Amount      Yield      Amount      Yield      Amount      Yield      Amount      Yield  
     (Dollars in thousands)  

Available-for-sale:

                             

Mortgage-backed securities

   $ 9        2.70%      $ 29,591        1.73%      $ 45,409        1.98%      $ 139,679        2.23%      $ 214,688        2.11%  

U.S. agency securities

     6,934        1.44%        9,348        2.67%        4,670        2.53%        1,963        2.81%        22,915        2.28%  

U.S. treasury securities

     -        0.00%        1,999        2.84%        -        0.00%        -        0.00%        1,999        2.84%  

Municipal bonds

     5,647        2.35%        10,084        2.26%        35,727        2.60%        16,817        3.51%        68,275        2.76%  
  

 

 

       

 

 

       

 

 

       

 

 

       

 

 

    

Total securities available-for-sale

   $ 12,590        1.85%      $ 51,022        2.05%      $ 85,806        2.27%      $ 158,459        2.37%      $ 307,877        2.27%  
  

 

 

       

 

 

       

 

 

       

 

 

       

 

 

    

Loan Portfolio

Our loan portfolio is our largest category of earning assets, and interest income earned on our loan portfolio is our primary source of income. We maintain a diversified loan portfolio with a focus on commercial real estate, one-to-four family residential and commercial and industrial loans. As of December 31, 2018, total loans held for investment totaled $1.33 billion, an increase of $80.8 million, or 6.5%, compared to $1.25 billion at December 31, 2017. The increase was primarily due to growth in commercial and residential real estate loans in our Southeast, Southwest, and Northwest Louisiana markets. As of December 31, 2017, total loans held for investment increased $101.0 million, or 8.8%, compared to $1.15 billion as of December 31, 2016. The increase in 2017 was primarily due to organic growth in each of the major components of our loan portfolio resulting from increased marketing efforts, the addition of experienced lending officers, and entry into the Southwest Louisiana market. We do not expect any significant changes over the near term in the composition of our held for investment loan portfolio or in our emphasis on commercial real estate, one-to-four family residential, or commercial and industrial lending.

Total loans held for investment by category are summarized below as of the dates indicated:

 

    As of December 31,  
    2018     2017     2016     2015     2014  
    Amount     Percent     Amount     Percent     Amount     Percent     Amount     Percent     Amount     Percent  
    (Dollars in thousands)  

Real estate:

                   

Commercial real estate

  $ 454,689       34.2%     $ 412,355       33.0%     $ 393,351       34.3%     $ 379,841       36.8%     $ 354,329       37.6%  

One-to-four family residential

    406,963       30.7%       375,536       30.1%       337,926       29.5%       298,234       28.9%       264,393       28.0%  

Construction and development

    102,868       7.7%       84,812       6.8%       77,155       6.7%       68,789       6.7%       53,569       5.7%  

Commercial and industrial

    275,881       20.8%       284,035       22.8%       248,448       21.7%       206,868       20.0%       205,220       21.7%  

Tax-exempt

    60,104       4.5%       62,776       5.0%       61,819       5.4%       51,816       5.0%       39,359       4.2%  

Consumer

    27,933       2.1%       28,152       2.3%       27,976       2.4%       27,049       2.6%       26,660       2.8%  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total loans held for investment

  $ 1,328,438       100.0%     $ 1,247,666       100.0%     $ 1,146,675       100.0%     $ 1,032,597       100.0%     $ 943,530       100.0%  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total loans held for sale

  $ 2,904       $ 1,867       $ 3,146       $ 3,604       $ 8,007    
 

 

 

     

 

 

     

 

 

     

 

 

     

 

 

   

Commercial Real Estate Loans.  Commercial real estate loans are primarily made for commercial property that is owner occupied as well as commercial property owned by real estate investors. Real estate securing commercial real estate loans includes many property types, such as retail centers, nursing homes, offices and office buildings, medical facilities, warehouses, churches and related facilities, production facilities, and multifamily properties. Commercial real estate loans increased $42.3 million, or 10.3%, to $454.7 million as of

 

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December 31, 2018 from $412.4 million as of December 31, 2017. In 2017, commercial real estate loans increased $19.0 million, or 4.8%, from $393.4 million as of December 31, 2016.

Non-owner occupied commercial real estate loans were $184.6 million, or 13.9% of total loans, and represented 87.4% of the Bank’s total risk-based capital as of December 31, 2018. The owner occupied and non-owner occupied components of the commercial real estate portfolio are summarized below.

 

Commercial Real Estate

 
     Owner Occupied     Non-Owner
Occupied
    Total  

As of December 31,

   Amount      Percent
of
Total

Loans
    Amount      Percent
of
Total

Loans
    Amount      Percent
of
Total

Loans
 
     (Dollars in thousands)  

2018

   $ 270,083        20.3   $ 184,606        13.9   $ 454,689        34.2

2017

   $ 241,153        19.3   $ 171,202        13.7   $ 412,355        33.0

2016

   $ 223,280        19.5   $ 170,071        14.8   $ 393,351        34.3

2015

   $ 218,688        21.2   $ 161,153        15.6   $ 379,841        36.8

2014

   $ 219,598        23.3   $ 134,731        14.3   $ 354,329        37.6

One-to-Four Family Residential Loans.  One-to-four family residential loans are predominantly first lien mortgage loans secured by owner occupied one-to-four family residential properties. One-to-four family residential loans increased $31.4 million, or 8.4%, to $407.0 million as of December 31, 2018 compared to $375.5 million as of December 31, 2017. In 2017, one-to-four family residential loans increased $37.6 million, or 11.1%, compared to $337.9 million as of December 31, 2016.

Construction and Development Loans.  The construction and development portfolio includes loans to small and medium-sized businesses to construct owner occupied facilities, loans to developers of commercial real estate investment properties and residential developments, and, to a lesser extent, loans to individual clients for construction of single family homes. Construction and development loans increased $18.1 million, or 21.3%, to $102.9 million as of December 31, 2018 compared to $84.8 million as of December 31, 2017. In 2017, construction and development loans increased $7.6 million, or 9.9%, compared to $77.2 million as of December 31, 2016.

Commercial and Industrial Loans.  Commercial and industrial loans are made for a variety of business purposes, including, but not limited to, inventory, equipment, capital expansion, and working capital enhancement. Collateral typically includes a lien on general business assets including, among other things, accounts receivable, inventory, equipment, and available real estate. A personal guaranty is generally obtained from the borrower or principal. Commercial and industrial loans decreased $8.2 million, or 2.9%, to $275.9 million as of December 31, 2018, from $284.0 million as of December 31, 2017. The decrease was related to the successful sale of a borrower’s company in our Central Louisiana market, which resulted in an early payoff of the related loan. In 2017, commercial and industrial loans increased $35.6 million, or 14.3% from $248.4 million as of December 31, 2016.

Tax-Exempt Loans.  Tax-exempt loans are made to political subdivisions of the State of Louisiana including parishes, municipalities, utility districts, school districts, and development authorities. These loans are typically secured by and paid for by ad valorem taxes. Tax-exempt loans decreased $2.7 million, or 4.3%, to $60.1 million as of December 31, 2018 compared to $62.8 million as of December 31, 2017. In 2017, tax-exempt loans increased $957,000, or 1.6%, compared to $61.8 million as of December 31, 2016.

Consumer Loans.  Consumer loans are made to individuals for personal, family, and household purposes and include secured and unsecured installment and term loans. Consumer loans are offered as an accommodation to existing customers and not marketed to persons without a pre-existing relationship with us. Accordingly, this category of loans continues to comprise an insignificant portion of the total portfolio with limited growth.

 

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Industry Concentrations.  As of December 31, 2018, there were no concentrations of loans within any single industry in excess of 10.0% of total loans held for investment as segregated by the North American Industry Classification System (“NAICS”). NAICS is an industry classification system used to categorize loans by the borrower’s type of business. Industry concentrations stated as a percentage of total loans held for investment as of December 31, 2018 are presented below:

 

     2018  

Healthcare

     9.1

Construction

     5.4

Retail trade

     4.4

Investor one-to-four family and multifamily

     4.3

Religious and other nonprofit

     3.1

Energy

     2.9

Public administration

     2.7

Finance and insurance

     2.2

Accommodation and food services

     2.2

Manufacturing

     1.6

All other

     62.1
  

 

 

 

Total loans held for investment

     100.0
  

 

 

 

Loan Portfolio Maturity Analysis

The maturity distribution for loans held for investment and the amount of such loans with fixed and floating interest rates are summarized below:

 

     As of December 31, 2018  
     One Year
or Less
    One Through
Five Years
    After
Five Years
    Total  
     (Dollars in thousands)  

Real estate:

        

Commercial real estate

   $ 76,003     $ 259,592     $ 119,094     $ 454,689  

One-to-four family residential

     37,041       97,006       272,916       406,963  

Construction and development

     55,148       40,504       7,216       102,868  

Commercial and industrial

     124,494       141,125       10,262       275,881  

Tax-exempt

     27       10,039       50,038       60,104  

Consumer

     7,534       19,225       1,174       27,933  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total loans held for investment

   $ 300,247     $ 567,491     $ 460,700     $ 1,328,438  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Fixed rate amount

   $ 163,233     $ 494,385     $ 459,835     $ 1,117,453  

Fixed rate percent

     12.29     37.22     34.61     84.12

Variable rate amount

   $ 137,014     $ 73,106     $ 865     $ 210,985  

Variable rate percent

     10.31     5.50     0.07     15.88

Nonperforming Assets

Nonperforming assets consist of nonperforming loans and property acquired through foreclosures or repossession. Nonperforming loans include loans that are contractually past due 90 days or more and loans that are on nonaccrual status. Loans are considered past due when principal and interest payments have not been received as of the date such payments are due.

Loans are placed on nonaccrual status when management determines that a borrower may be unable to meet future contractual payments as they become due. When a loan is placed on nonaccrual status, uncollected accrued interest is reversed, reducing interest income, and future income accrual is discontinued. Interest income is subsequently recognized only to the extent cash payments are received in excess of principal due. Loans are returned to accrual status when the principal and interest amounts contractually due are brought current and future payments are reasonably assured.

 

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Asset quality is managed through disciplined underwriting policies, continual monitoring of loan performance, and focused management of nonperforming assets. There can be no assurance, however, that the loan portfolio will not become subject to losses due to declines in economic conditions, deterioration in the financial condition of our borrowers, or a decline in the value of collateral.

Asset quality trends were positive in 2018. Our nonperforming assets to total assets ratio was 0.38% as of December 31, 2018 compared to 0.60% as of December 31, 2017. Total nonperforming assets decreased $3.3 million, or 31.4%, to $7.1 million as of December 31, 2018 from $10.4 million as of December 31, 2017. This decrease was mainly due to the receipt of $2.7 million in payments on nonperforming loans. Additionally, proceeds totaling $1.2 million were received from the sale of foreclosed assets acquired during the year, which was partially offset by an increase of $623,000 in foreclosed assets remaining in inventory. In 2017, total nonperforming assets increased $4.4 million, or 74.4% to $10.4 million from $6.0 million as of December 31, 2016.

Nonperforming loans and asset information is summarized below:

 

     As of December 31,  
     2018      2017      2016      2015      2014  
     (Dollars in thousands)  

Nonperforming loans:

              

Nonaccrual loans

   $       5,560         $       9,444         $       5,608         $       5,550         $       5,170     

Accruing loans 90 or more days past due

     939           942           14           304           16     
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total nonperforming loans

     6,499           10,386           5,622           5,854           5,186     
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Foreclosed assets:

              

Real estate

     646           23           346           455           431     

Other

     -           -           -           -           -     
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total foreclosed assets

     646           23           346           455           431     
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total nonperforming assets

   $ 7,145         $ 10,409         $ 5,968         $ 6,309         $ 5,617     
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Troubled debt restructurings:(1)

              

Nonaccrual loans

   $ 3,540         $ 4,497         $ 1,124         $ 1,580         $ 1,779     

Accruing loans 90 or more days past due

     -         $ 792           -           -           -     

Performing loans

     1,572           2,002           3,932           2,036           2,328     
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total troubled debt restructurings

   $ 5,112         $ 7,291         $ 5,056         $ 3,616         $ 4,107     
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Ratio of nonperforming loans to total loans held for investment(1)

     0.49%        0.83%        0.49%        0.57%        0.55%  

Ratio of nonperforming assets to total assets

     0.38%        0.60%        0.36%        0.42%        0.40%  

 

(1)

Troubled debt restructurings — nonaccrual and accruing loans 90 or more days past due are included in the respective components of nonperforming loans.

Nonaccrual loans decreased $3.9 million, or 41.1%, to $5.6 million as of December 31, 2018 compared to $9.4 million as of December 31, 2017. This decrease was due to the receipt of $2.7 million in payments and $1.2 million of collateral liquidations. The payments received were primarily attributable to a $1.3 million pay down of an energy commercial and industrial loan and a $1.1 million payoff of a commercial lot loan that was moved to nonaccrual status in 2017. Collateral liquidations included $900,000 related to a one-to-four family residential loan that was moved to nonaccrual status in 2017. Nonaccrual loans increased $3.8 million, or 68.4%, to $9.4 million as of December 31, 2017, compared to $5.6 million as of December 31, 2016. The increase in 2017 was attributable to the changes in status of a $2.4 million energy loan, a $1.1 million commercial lot loan, and a $900,000 one-to-four family residential loan.

 

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Nonaccrual loans are summarized below by category:

 

     As of December 31,  
     2018      2017      2016      2015      2014  
     (Dollars in thousands)  

Nonaccrual loans by category:

              

Real estate:

              

Commercial real estate

   $       1,362        $ 1,171        $ 920        $ 3,697        $ 4,156    

One-to-four family residential

     424          1,821          752          1,191          265    

Construction and development

     55          1,143          204          583          684    

Commercial and industrial

     3,675          5,288          3,698          79          65    

Tax-exempt

     -          -          -          -          -    

Consumer

     44          21          34          -          -    
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total nonaccrual loans

   $ 5,560        $       9,444        $       5,608        $       5,550        $       5,170    
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Potential Problem Loans

From a credit risk standpoint, we classify loans in one of five categories: pass, special mention, substandard, doubtful, or loss. Loan classifications reflect a judgment about the risk of default and loss associated with the loans. Classifications are reviewed periodically and adjusted to reflect the degree of risk and loss believed to be inherent in each loan. The methodology is structured so that specific reserve allocations are increased in accordance with deterioration in credit quality (and a corresponding increase in risk and loss) or decreased in accordance with improvement in credit quality (and a corresponding decrease in risk and loss). Loans classified as pass are loans with very low to acceptable risk levels based on the borrower’s financial condition, financial trends, management strength, and collateral quality. Loans classified as special mention have potential weaknesses that deserve management’s close attention. If these weaknesses are not corrected, repayment possibilities for the loan may deteriorate. However, the loss potential does not pose sufficient risk to warrant substandard classification.

Loans classified as substandard have well defined weaknesses which jeopardize normal repayment of principal and interest. Prompt corrective action is required to reduce exposure and to assure adequate remedial actions are taken by the borrower. If these weaknesses do not improve, loss is possible. Loans classified as doubtful have well defined weaknesses that make full collection improbable. Loans classified as loss are considered uncollectible and charged off to the allowance for loan losses.

As of December 31, 2018, loans classified as pass were 96.7% of total loans and loans classified as special mention and substandard were 1.7% and 1.6%, respectively, of total loans. There were no loans as of December 31, 2018 classified as doubtful or loss. As of December 31, 2017, loans classified as pass were 96.3% of total loans and loans classified as special mention and substandard were 1.6% and 2.1%, respectively, of total loans. There were no loans as of December 31, 2017 classified as doubtful or loss.

 

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Total loans held for investment are summarized below by risk category:

 

    As of December 31, 2018  
        Pass           Special
    Mention    
     Substandard          Doubtful                 Loss                   Total        
    (Dollars in thousands)  

Real estate:

           

Commercial real estate

  $ 439,580     $ 11,883     $ 3,226     $ -     $ -     $ 454,689  

One-to-four family residential

    402,864       1,992       2,107       -       -       406,963  

Construction and development

    101,754       375       739       -       -       102,868  

Commercial and industrial

    251,987       8,311       15,583       -       -       275,881  

Tax-exempt

    60,104       -       -       -       -       60,104  

Consumer

    27,729       44       160       -       -       27,933  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total loans held for investment

  $     1,284,018     $       22,605     $       21,815     $       -     $       -     $       1,328,438  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

    As of December 31, 2017  
        Pass           Special
    Mention    
     Substandard          Doubtful                 Loss                   Total        
    (Dollars in thousands)  

Real estate:

           

Commercial real estate

  $ 401,341     $ 4,534     $ 6,480     $ -     $ -     $ 412,355  

One-to-four family residential

    371,225       1,269       3,042       -       -       375,536  

Construction and development

    83,323       210       1,279       -       -       84,812  

Commercial and industrial

    254,346       13,651       16,038       -       -       284,035  

Tax-exempt

    62,776       -       -       -       -       62,776  

Consumer

    27,970       39       143       -       -       28,152  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total loans held for investment

  $     1,200,981     $       19,703     $       26,982     $       -     $       -     $       1,247,666  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Allowance for Loan Losses

The allowance for loan losses represents management’s best assessment of potential loan losses and risks inherent in the loan portfolio. It is maintained at a level estimated to be adequate to absorb these potential losses through periodic charges to the provision for loan losses. The amount of the allowance for loan losses should not be interpreted as an indication that charge-offs in future periods will necessarily occur in those amounts, or at all.

The allowance for loan losses is established in accordance with GAAP and consists of specific and general reserves. Specific reserves relate to loans classified as impaired. Loans are considered impaired when, based on current information and events, it is probable that the Bank will be unable to collect all amounts due in accordance with the contractual terms of the loan. Impaired loans include troubled debt restructurings and performing and nonperforming loans. Impaired loans are reviewed individually, and a specific allowance is allocated, if necessary, based on evaluation of either the fair value of the collateral underlying the loan or the present value of future cash flows calculated using the loan’s existing interest rate. General reserves relate to the remainder of the loan portfolio, including overdrawn deposit accounts, and are based on evaluation of a number of factors, such as current economic conditions, the quality and composition of the loan portfolio, loss history, and other relevant factors.

In connection with the review of the loan portfolio, risk elements attributable to particular loan types or categories are considered in assessing the quality of individual loans. Some of the risk elements considered include:

 

   

for commercial real estate loans, the debt service coverage ratio (income from the business in excess of operating expenses compared to loan repayment requirements); operating results of the owner in the case of owner occupied properties; the loan-to-value ratio; the age and condition of the collateral; the volatility of income, property value, and future operating results typical of properties of that type;

 

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for one-to-four family residential mortgage loans, the borrower’s ability to repay the loan, including a consideration of the debt to income ratio and employment and income stability; the loan-to-value ratio; and the age, condition, and marketability of the collateral;

 

   

for construction and development loans, the perceived feasibility of the project, including the ability to sell developed lots or improvements constructed for resale or the ability to lease property constructed for lease; the quality and nature of contracts for presale or prelease, if any; experience and ability of the developer; and the loan-to-value ratio; and

 

   

for commercial and industrial loans, the debt service coverage ratio; the operating results of the commercial, industrial, or professional enterprise; the borrower’s business, professional, and financial ability and expertise; the specific risks and volatility of income and operating results typical for businesses in that category; the value, nature, and marketability of collateral; and the financial resources of the guarantor(s), if any.

The allowance for loan losses totaled $12.5 million, or 0.94%, of loans held for investment as of December 31, 2018. As of December 31, 2017, the allowance for loan losses totaled $10.9 million, or 0.87%, of loans held for investment. The ratio of net charge-offs to average loans held for investment decreased to 0.03% for the year ended December 31, 2018 versus 0.10% for the year ended December 31, 2017. Net charge-offs decreased $843,000 in 2018 primarily due to active monitoring of delinquent and problem loans and focused management of collection and workout processes. Additionally, for nonperforming loans that ultimately defaulted, the underlying collateral was valued at an amount generally sufficient to cover the outstanding balance, mitigating the need for charge-off. As of December 31, 2016, the allowance for loan losses totaled $10.5 million, or 0.92%, of loans held for investment. Net charge-offs increased $579,000 in 2017, primarily due to the partial charge-off of an energy loan.

 

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The following table displays activity in the allowance for loan losses for the periods shown:

 

     As of and for the Years Ended December 31,  
     2018     2017     2016     2015     2014  
     (Dollars in thousands)  

Total loans held for investment

   $       1,328,438     $       1,247,666     $       1,146,675     $       1,032,597     $       943,530  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Average loans held for investment

   $ 1,309,219     $ 1,181,208     $ 1,086,862     $ 983,362     $ 892,078  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Allowance for loan losses at beginning of period

   $ 10,895     $ 10,544     $ 9,511     $ 8,798     $ 8,773  

Provision for loan losses

     1,990       1,555       1,658       946       320  

Charge-offs:

          

Real estate:

          

Commercial real estate

     27       -       26       -       -  

One-to-four family residential

     4       181       240       5       111  

Construction and development

     -       101       206       -       -  

Commercial and industrial

     353       824       32       118       -  

Tax-exempt

     -       -       -       -       407  

Consumer

     353       353       281       288       297  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total charge-offs

     737       1,459       785       411       815  

Recoveries:

          

Real estate:

          

Commercial real estate

     27       1       -       -       1  

One-to-four family residential

     187       73       13       31       1  

Construction and development

     -       -       -       -       1  

Commercial and industrial

     9       60       11       21       376  

Tax-exempt

     -       -       -       -       -  

Consumer

     153       121       136       126       141  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total recoveries

     376       255       160       178       520  

Net charge-offs

     361       1,204       625       233       295  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Allowance for loan losses at end of period

   $ 12,524     $ 10,895     $ 10,544     $ 9,511     $ 8,798  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Ratio of allowance for loan losses to total loans held for investment

     0.94     0.87     0.92     0.92     0.93

Ratio of net charge-offs to average loans held for investment

     0.03     0.10     0.06     0.02     0.03

Ratio of provision for loan losses to net charge-offs

     551.25     129.15     265.28     406.01     108.47

We believe the allowance for loan losses was adequate to provide for known and inherent losses in the portfolio at all times shown above. Future provisions for loan losses are subject to ongoing evaluations of the factors and loan portfolio risks described above. A decline in market area economic conditions, deterioration of asset quality, or growth in portfolio size could cause the allowance to become inadequate and material additional provisions for loan losses could be required.

The following table displays the allocation of the allowance for loan losses among the loan classifications for the dates shown. The allocations shown below should neither be interpreted as an indication of future charge-offs, nor as an indication that charge-offs in the future will necessarily occur in these amounts or in the indicated proportions. The total allowance is available to absorb losses from any loan classification.

 

    As of December 31,  
    2018     2017     2016     2015     2014  
    Amount     Percent
to Total
    Amount     Percent
to Total
    Amount     Percent
to Total
    Amount     Percent
to Total
    Amount     Percent
to Total
 
    (Dollars in thousands)  

Real estate:

                   

Commercial real estate

  $ 3,081       24.6%     $ 3,270       30.0%     $ 3,133       29.7%     $ 2,857       30.0%     $ 2,807       31.9%  

One-to-four family residential

    3,146       25.1%       3,099       28.5%       2,997       28.4%       3,183       33.5%       2,657       30.2%  

Construction and development

    951       7.6%       852       7.8%       675       6.4%       509       5.4%       415       4.7%  

Commercial and industrial

    4,604       36.8%       2,836       26.0%       3,005       28.5%       2,264       23.8%       2,326       26.5%  

Tax-exempt

    372       3.0%       432       4.0%       426       4.1%       380       4.0%       294       3.3%  

Consumer

    370       2.9%       406       3.7%       308       2.9%       318       3.3%       299       3.4%  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total allowance for loan losses

  $ 12,524       100.0%     $ 10,895       100.0%     $ 10,544       100.0%     $ 9,511       100.0%     $ 8,798       100.0%  
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

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Table of Contents

Deposits

Deposits are the primary funding source for loans and investments. We offer a variety of products designed to attract and retain consumer, commercial, and public entity customers. These products consist of noninterest and interest-bearing checking accounts, savings accounts, money market accounts, and time deposit accounts. Deposits are gathered from individuals, partnerships, corporations, and public entities located primarily in our market areas. We do not have any internet-sourced or brokered deposits.

Total deposits increased $119.6 million, or 7.8%, to $1.65 billion as of December 31, 2018 from $1.53 billion as of December 31, 2017. NOW accounts represented the largest category of growth, as our public entity growth and diversification strategies continued to produce positive results. For 2018, average public entity deposits were 8.9% of average total deposits. Noninterest-bearing demand deposits also were a significant contributor to deposit growth, driven by continued robust new retail checking account activity, as well as market share gains in our commercial and small business portfolios.

Total deposits increased $53.1 million, or 3.6%, to $1.53 billion as of December 31, 2017 from $1.47 billion as of December 31, 2016 due to robust new account openings in our banking centers, the addition of new commercial and private bankers in all of our markets, and existing customers holding higher balances. New account activity was driven in part by the closure of a number of competitors’ banking center locations within our primary markets. During 2017, our deposit growth was impacted by a strategic initiative to achieve greater diversification within our public entity client deposit base. We proactively engaged with our largest public entity depositors to rebalance their overall deposit bases among their various banking providers, resulting in a modest reduction in total deposits for these large clients at our institution. The implementation of this strategy resulted in a reduction in our large depositor concentration risk, enhanced the quality of our existing public entity client base, and created capacity for additional distinct public entity relationships. The $37.9 million decrease in time deposits in 2017 was in part due to this strategy. Our ratio of average public entity deposits to average total deposits was 8.1% for 2017 and 7.8% for 2016.

The following tables present our deposit mix as of the dates indicated and the dollar and pe